2: Endocrine system and receptors Flashcards Preview

Endocrine Week 1 2017/18 > 2: Endocrine system and receptors > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Endocrine system and receptors Deck (62)
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1

The endocrine system consists of ___.

glands

2

Do endocrine glands have ducts?

No - release hormones into bloodstream

3

Parietal cells and G cells in the stomach have ___ so they are examples of exocrine cells.

ducts

4

How do hormones have specific actions i.e why don't they react with all receptors on all cells?

Hormones have distinct structures

Receptors are specific to each hormone

Receptors are found in different distributions on different cells

5

The tissues or cells on which a hormone acts are called ___ tissues / cells.

target tissues / cells

6

What are the three categories of hormone?

Modified amino acids (hormones derived from tyrosine and tyramine)

Steroid hormones (derived from cholesterol)

Peptide hormones (from proteins)

7

What are some examples of modified amino acid hormones?

Adrenaline

Thyroid hormones

8

What are some examples of steroid hormones?

Cortisol

Progesterone

Testosterone

9

What are some examples of peptide hormones?

Insulin

ACTH

ADH

Oxytocin

10

What types of hormone are derived from:

a) tyrosine and tyramine

b) cholesterol

c) protein?

a) Modified amino acid hormones

b) Steroid hormones

c) Peptide hormones

11

What type of hormones are:

a) ADH

b) thyroid hormones

c) testosterone?

a) Peptide

b) Modified amino acid

c) Steroid

12

What is autocrine signalling?

Hormone causes response in the same cell

13

What is paracrine signalling?

Hormone exits cell and causes response in adjacent cells

14

What is endocrine signalling?

Hormone exits cell, enters bloodstream and causes response in distant cells

15

In what types of signalling do hormones:

a) enter the bloodstream and cause a response in distant cells

b) cause a response in the same cell it was made in

c) cause a response in adjacent cells?

a) Endocrine

b) Autocrine

c) Paracrine

16

Hormones act in (very low / very high) concentrations to cause a response in target cells.

very low concentrations

measured in mmol/L

17

Specific hormones affect (one / more than one) target cell.

Target cells are regulated by (only one / more than one) hormone.

Specific hormones affect several different cell types

Target cells are regulated by loads of different hormones

18

Binding of a ligand to a receptor to cause a cellular response (i.e carrying a signal through the cell membrane) is called ___ ___.

signal transduction

19

Seeing as hormones are present in tiny concentrations, what process often occurs when hormones bind to receptors?

Amplification

to increase the number of responses to a single hormone molecule

20

Where are hormones deactivated?

Where they bound to the receptor

OR

The liver

21

Several different hormones can work together to regulate a physiological factor like blood glucose concentration.

What is this process called?

Complementary / cooperative action

22

What are two processes regulated by complementary action of hormones?

Increase in blood glucose conc. during exercise - adrenaline, cortisol and glucagon working together

Normal growth - growth hormone, insulin, IGF-1 and sex steroids working together

23

What is antagonistic action of hormones?

Hormones have the opposite effect and work against each other

e.g insulin and glucagon - insulin decreases blood glucose conc., glucagon increases it

24

Amino acid based proteins like adrenaline are more commonly known as ___ hormones.

amine hormones

25

Amine hormones are synthesised (within / outwith) cells, stored in ___ and then released in response to activation of a receptor by ligand.

synthesised within cells

stored in vesicles

26

By what process are vesicles containing amines released from a cell?

Exocytosis

27

What ion is required for exocytosis of vesicles from cells?

Ca2+

28

Amines are (hydrophilic / hydrophobic), which means they can flow freely in the blood.

hydrophilic

(remember that thyroid hormones are hydrophobic and therefore lumped in with steroids)

29

Why are amine hormones always ready to be secreted from cells?

Cells have big reserves of them

30

Peptide hormones are cleaved off longer ___ proteins before they are stored in vesicles and released by exocytosis.

precursor proteins