The number of people with diabetes in Scotland is (increasing / decreasing).
Which types of diabetes involve
a) an absolute
b) a relative
a) Type 1 diabetes - absolute insulin deficiency
b) Type 2 diabetes - relative insulin deficiency
What is the definition of diabetes mellitus?
Group of diseases featuring hyperglycaemia
caused by probs with insulin secretion, insulin action or both
What is the normal range for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)?
41 mmol/L or less
What concentration of HbA1c is diagnostic of diabetes?
48 mmol/L or above
What is the upper limit of normal fasting glucose concentration?
Normal is around 5.5 mmol/L
What fasting glucose concentration is diagnostic of diabetes?
7.0 mmol/L or above
What is the upper limit of normal glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose tolerance test?
What 2-hr OGTT glucose concentration is diagnostic of diabetes?
11.1 mmol/L or more
If you were to take a random glucose measurement and it was more than __._ mmol/L, that would be diagnostic of diabetes.
Type _ diabetes is characterised by autoimmune beta cell destruction.
Type 2 diabetes is a diagnosis of ___.
Type 1 diabetes is autoimmune
Type 2 is a diagnosis of exclusion
What is the name for the inflammation seen in beta cells in Type 1 diabetes?
Insulitis in Type 1 diabetes eventually causes total ___ of beta cells.
What follows hyperglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes, creating a vicious cycle of disease?
Hyperglycaemia > Hyperinsulinaemia > Insulin resistance > Hyperglycaemia...
Which type of diabetes is associated with ketoacidosis?
Type 1 diabetes
Which patients does Type 1 diabetes tend to present in?
Type 1 diabetics tend to be (lean / overweight).
Weight loss is a symptom
Type 1 diabetics immediately require which treatment upon diagnosis?
What are the classical symptoms of Type 1 diabetes?
Increased urination frequency (polyuria, often smells sugary)
Increased thirst (polydipsia)
TOILET, THIRSTY, TIRED, THIN
What four Ts describe the presentation of Type 1 diabetes?
What age are patients who present with Type 2 diabetes?
Older (mid 30s and up)
Type 2 diabetics tend to be (lean / overweight).
The pre-diabetic period before Type 2 diabetes starts in earnest lasts how long?
6 - 10 years
so by the time they're diagnosed, complications have usually occurred :(
Type 1 diabetes has a (rapid / insidious) onset.
Type 1 diabetes - rapid onset
Type 2 diabetes - insidious, over 6-10 years
Do Type 2 diabetics tend to have smelly urine?
No, but you would know if it was Type 1/2 based off the history (older, overweight etc.)
Is Type 2 diabetes managed with insulin injections?
Not the first line therapy
but many go on to need injections when they get older
What kind of diabetes occurs temporarily in pregnant mothers and increases their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in the future?
Patients with a ___ history of diabetes are more likely to develop it.
it likely has a genetic component
Patients with a history of ___ disease are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes.
People with diabetes tend to get what fungal infection?
Candida spp. i.e yeast infection - THRUSH