4: What is diabetes? Flashcards Preview

Endocrine Week 1 2017/18 > 4: What is diabetes? > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4: What is diabetes? Deck (39)
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1

The number of people with diabetes in Scotland is (increasing / decreasing).

increasing

2

Which types of diabetes involve

a) an absolute

b) a relative

insulin deficiency?

a) Type 1 diabetes - absolute insulin deficiency

b) Type 2 diabetes - relative insulin deficiency

3

What is the definition of diabetes mellitus?

Group of diseases featuring hyperglycaemia

caused by probs with insulin secretion, insulin action or both

4

What is the normal range for glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)?

41 mmol/L or less

5

What concentration of HbA1c is diagnostic of diabetes?

48 mmol/L or above

6

What is the upper limit of normal fasting glucose concentration?

6.0 mmol/L

Normal is around 5.5 mmol/L

7

What fasting glucose concentration is diagnostic of diabetes?

7.0 mmol/L or above

8

What is the upper limit of normal glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose tolerance test?

7.7 mmol/L

9

What 2-hr OGTT glucose concentration is diagnostic of diabetes?

11.1 mmol/L or more

10

If you were to take a random glucose measurement and it was more than __._ mmol/L, that would be diagnostic of diabetes.

11.1 mmol/L

11

Type _ diabetes is characterised by autoimmune beta cell destruction.

Type 2 diabetes is a diagnosis of ___.

Type 1 diabetes is autoimmune

Type 2 is a diagnosis of exclusion

12

What is the name for the inflammation seen in beta cells in Type 1 diabetes?

Insulitis

13

Insulitis in Type 1 diabetes eventually causes total ___ of beta cells.

destruction

14

What follows hyperglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes, creating a vicious cycle of disease?

Hyperglycaemia > Hyperinsulinaemia > Insulin resistance > Hyperglycaemia...

15

Which type of diabetes is associated with ketoacidosis?

Type 1 diabetes

16

Which patients does Type 1 diabetes tend to present in?

Young patients

17

Type 1 diabetics tend to be (lean / overweight).

lean

Weight loss is a symptom

18

Type 1 diabetics immediately require which treatment upon diagnosis?

Insulin

19

What are the classical symptoms of Type 1 diabetes?

Increased urination frequency (polyuria, often smells sugary)

Increased thirst (polydipsia)

Fatigue

Weight loss

TOILET, THIRSTY, TIRED, THIN

20

What four Ts describe the presentation of Type 1 diabetes?

Toilet

Thirsty

Tired

Thin

21

What age are patients who present with Type 2 diabetes?

Older (mid 30s and up)

22

Type 2 diabetics tend to be (lean / overweight).

overweight

23

The pre-diabetic period before Type 2 diabetes starts in earnest lasts how long?

6 - 10 years

so by the time they're diagnosed, complications have usually occurred :(

24

Type 1 diabetes has a (rapid / insidious) onset.

Type 1 diabetes - rapid onset

Type 2 diabetes - insidious, over 6-10 years

25

Do Type 2 diabetics tend to have smelly urine?

No, but you would know if it was Type 1/2 based off the history (older, overweight etc.)

26

Is Type 2 diabetes managed with insulin injections?

Not the first line therapy

but many go on to need injections when they get older

27

What kind of diabetes occurs temporarily in pregnant mothers and increases their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes in the future?

Gestational diabetes

28

Patients with a ___ history of diabetes are more likely to develop it.

family history

it likely has a genetic component

29

Patients with a history of ___ disease are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes.

cardiovascular disease

30

People with diabetes tend to get what fungal infection?

Where?

Candida spp. i.e yeast infection - THRUSH

Groin