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Flashcards in 2.19 Epigenetics Deck (81)
1

Set of all the RNAs (both coding and noncoding) produced by a cell or a population of cells

Transcriptome

2

Set of all the proteins produced by the cell at a particular point in time under certain environmental conditions

Proteome

3

True or false
Less nurtured rats had multiple epigenetic marks that silenced these genes

True

4

True or false
Nurtured rats handled stress better because nothing was restricting or silencing the activity of these genes

True

5

Study of changes in gene expression that are stable over rounds of cell division, and sometimes between generations, but do not involve change in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism

Epigenetics

6

Rearranging misplaced tags/markers

Epigenetic therapy

7

Control of gene expression

DNA methylation
Histone tail modification
Different types of RNAs

8

Angelman Syndrome: __ gene deletion

Maternal

9

Prader-Willi Syndrome: ___ gene deletion

Paternal

10

True or false
Epigenetics can have transgenerational effects

True

11

Analyzing patterns of famine and other information in the village archives, it was found that the effects of famine are still evident in the people almost a century later despite not having experienced famine themselves

Overkalix study

12

Some environmental exposure in one generation having effects on future generation

Transgenerational effect

13

True or false
Epigenetic changes accumulate over time

True

14

Older twins have more (red/yellow) in their DNA than the younger twins

Red

15

Happens when two active X chromosomes interact but the other is silenced

X inactivation

16

Allows males and females to have the same dose of genes on the X chromosome even though females have to X's and males have only one

X inactivation

17

Inactive X chromosome shows DNA methylation of ___

CpG islands

18

Inactivated X chromosome packaged as heterochromatin

Barr bodies

19

XX females have __ Barr body/ies

1

20

XXX females have __ Barr body/ies

2

21

Dispersed, beads on a string, with active histone tail molecules that tag DNA

Active chromosomes (Euchromatin)

22

These are open and accessible to transcription factors and other proteins
Genes are turned ON

Active chromosomes
(Euchromatin)

23

Tightly bound and condensed, with inactive histone tail modifications

Inactive chromosome (Heterochromatin)

24

Structural proteins that zip the DNA up
DNA is methylated
Less accessible for transcription and therefore silenced
Genes are turned OFF

Heterochromatin

25

The inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called __

Lyonization

26

States that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one is inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis.

Lyon Hypothesis

27

Mechanisms for epigenetic control

DNA methylation
Histone Modification
Other regulatory mRNAs

28

Methylated DNA = gene (silencing/expression)

Silencing

29

Unmethylated DNA = gene (silencing/expression)

Expression

30

Used to maintain genomic stability

DNA methylation

31

Intergenic regions and repetitive elements are usually methylated because these are correlated with jumping genes called __

Transposons

32

DNA methylation usually occurs at ___ turning it into ___

Cytosine;
5-methylcytosine (mC/5mC)

33

A sequence often near promoters of genes where methylation usually occurs

CpG Islands

34

True or false
CpG islands are usually methylated

False
They are protected from methylation to allow for expression

35

CpG islands are usually site for methylation due to it being ___

Symmetrical

36

Can maintain the methylation state after replication by using the hemimethylated DNA as a substrate, and then methylating the other strand accordingly

DNMT1

37

Proteins that bind CpG islands are called ___

Methylated CpG binding proteins or MeCPs

38

Have a transcriptional repression domain
Recruit other factors that condense the chromatin

Methylated CpG binding proteins

39

Mediated by methylation to render gene inactive

Imprinting

40

Marking genes as paternal or maternal in origin, in other words, parent-specific gene activation

Genomic imprinting

41

Occurs when there is a deletion in the 15q11-q13 region of the paternal chromosome 15

Prader Willi syndrome

42

Occurs when there is a deletion in the 15q11-q13 region of the maternal chromosome 15

Angelman syndrome

43

Gene involved in Angelman syndrome

UBE3A

44

Gene involved in Prader-Willi syndrome

SNRPN

45

In Angelman syndrome, UBE3A protein is involved in what pathway

Ubiquitin pathway

46

In Prader-Willi syndrome, SNRPN gene is involved in what process

mRNA splicing

47

Obesity
Hypogonadism
Mild to moderate mental retardation
Hyperphagia

Prader-Willi syndrome

48

Microcephaly
Ataxic gait (uncoordinated muscle movement)
Seizures
Inappropriate laughter
Severe mental retardation

Angelman syndrome

49

True or false
Methylation of C in CpG islands affects globin genes in human embryonic blood cells

True

50

True or false
The activity of the globin genes correlates directly with the methylation of their promoters

False
Correlates indirectly: high globin activity, unmethylated promoter

51

The erythroid-specific LCR for the beta globins is upstream of epsilon on chromosome __

11

52

Function as super-enhancers, establishing open chromatin

LCRs

53

Methods of demethylation

Passive demethylation
Active demethylation

54

Could happen by dilution when DNMT1 fails to maintain methylation marks after replication and cell division

Passive demethylation

55

Important for wiping the slate clear during development

Active demethylation

56

Active demethylation is done by specific enzymes ___

Ten-Eleven Translocation, TET family of enzymes

57

In an active demetylation, hydroxymethylcytosine is a likely ___ and is ___

intermediate; regulatory

58

The bisulphite sequencing cannot distinguish __ and __

mC and hmC

59

Distinguish between mC and hmC by running bisuflphite sequencing twice

Oxidating bisulfite sequencing

60

Yield information about formylcytosine

Resduced Bisulfite sequencing

61

Correlated with gene opening and activation

Histone Acetylation

62

Known to occur on lysine residues in the amino terminal tails of histone molecules

Acetylation

63

Changes the charge from positive to neutral amide, which decreases the affinity of histone to the DNA

Acetylation (of lysine changes)

64

Histone methylation occurs in the amines of __ and __, but there is no change in the charge of the amines

Lysine
Arginine

65

Active locus
Around promoter area

Methylation of histone 3's lysine 4 (H3K4me)

66

Inactive locus
Spread over the gene in constitutive heterochromatin (stable inactivation, such as centromeres)

Methylation of histone 3's lysine 9 (H3K9me)

67

Inactive locus
Spread over the gene in facultative heterochromatin

Methylation of histone 3's lysine 27 (H3K27me)

68

Largely unchanged among different cell types
Always condensed and thus essentially inactive
Found in the regions near the chromosal centromere and at chromosomal ends (telomeres)

Constitutive heterochromatin

69

Vary among different cell types and tends to be associated with cell type
At times condensed, but at other times it is actively transcribed and thus appears as euchromatin

Facultative heterochromatin

70

True or false
Histone modification is stable through rounds of cell division

False
Unlike DNA methylation, it does not seem to be as stable

71

DNA methylation tends to ___; Histone methylation tends to ___

Silence genes;
Activate or inactivate genes

72

lncRNAs

Long noncoding RNAs

73

Have greater sequence specificity due to length
During trnascription, ther are attached or close to their gene of origin
May serve as guide or scaffold for attaching histone modifying enzymes

lncRNAs

74

Part of machinery that leads to silencing of one of X chromosomes in females
17-kb, spliced polyadenylated

Xist RNA

75

Expressed from one of the X chromosomes, coats it, and leads to silencing of the other X chromosome

Xist RNA

76

GAL gene's expression by RNA polymerase II may be suppressed by:

lncRNA transcription on the other side
lncRNA association with hsitones to prevents its modifications to open the DNA

77

Some sort of immune system (anti-transposon, anti-virus) in mammalians

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs)

78

Regulatory RNA which forms a complex with PIWI proteins that can be imported to the nucleus to methylate transposone genes and silence them

piRNAs

79

True or false
piRNAs can also direct DNA methylation at sites other than transposable elements

True

80

Proportion of individuals carrying a particular variant of a gene

Penetrance

81

When not all carriers of a certain dominant allele in a population end up expressing the trait

Incomplete penetrance