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Encompasses the study of cells, extra cellular components, and their organization into tissues, organs, organ system

Histology

1

Make use of microscopes

Histology

2

Makes use of visible light to view a specimen

Light microscope

3

Utilizes a beam of energized electrons which passes through or is bounced off by the specimen

Electron microscope

4

Electrons pass on the surface

Scanning EM

5

Passes through the specimen

Transmission EM

6

Bathe in fixative

Fixation

7

Terminates cellular processes
Preserves cellular architecture/tissue morphology
Prevents autolysis of organelles
Protection against bacteria

Fixative

8

Bathe in progressively increasing concentrations of ethyl alcohol

Dehydration

9

Remove water from the cell

Dehydration

10

Bathe in lipid-solvent

Clearing

11

To remove alcohol and lipids in preparation for next step

Clearing

12

Bake specimen in melted paraffin wax (58-60)

Embedding

13

Use microtome

Sectioning

14

Sections tissue thinly

Sectioning

15

To distinguish different structures

Staining

16

Basic dye
Reacts with acidic components

Hematoxylin

17

Stains the DNA, RNA due to their acidic nature

Hematoxylin

18

Acidic dye
Reacts with basic components

Eosin

19

Stains collagen and cytoplasm pink

Eosin

20

Magenta
Glycogen and carbohydrate rich molecules

Periodic acid schiff stain

21

Differential staining for blood cells

Wright and giemsa stain

22

Pink: erythrocytes, eosinophil granules
Purple: leukocyte nuclei, basophil granules
Blue: cytoplasm of monocytes and lymphocytes

Wright and Giemsa stain

23

Stains Elastic fiber brown

Orcein

24

Stains reticular fibers black

Silver stain

25

Stains striations of muscles, nuclei, erythrocytes

Iron Hematoxylin Stain

26

Stains collagen fibers light blue
Nuclei, dark blue
Cytoplasm and muscle, red

Massom's trichome

27

Contains DNA that encodes the instructions for synthesis of all proteins and enzymes of the cell

Nucleus

28

Contains organelles and inclusions suspended in a fluid medium called the cytosol

Cytoplasm

29

Principal site of metabolic function of cell

Cytoplasm

30

Metabolically active
Internal cellular organs carrying out specific essential functions
Bound by membrane

Organelles

31

Metabolically inert
Accumulation of cell products
Dispensable
Not bound by a membrane

Inclusions

32

Plasmalemma
Trilaminar structure due to phospholipid bilayer
Composed of phospholipids and proteins

Cell membrane

33

Two components of lipid bilayer
Responsible for cellular form and permeability

Phospholipids

34

Kinds of protein
Spans the entire width of plasma membrane

Intrinsic protein

35

Kinds of protein
Found only on inner or outer surface of Plasmalemma

Extrinsic protein

36

Transports a substance from the external environment inracellularly

Carrier proteins

37

Allows communication between external and internal environment of the cell
Allow molecules to go in and out

Channel protein

38

Binding domain for substances such as hormones

Receptor

39

Carbohydrate chains attached to proteins and phospholipid molecules in outer leaflet
Mat of delicate branching polysaccharide filaments

Glycocalyx

40

Functions of glycocalyx

Cell recognition
Intercellular adhesion
Mechanical and chemical protection for cell membrane

41

Largest organelle of the cell
Contains the genetic material of the organism
Site of transcription

Nucleus

42

Components of nucleus

Chromatin
Nucleolus
Nuclear envelope
Nucleoplasm

43

Contains mRNA therefore present in active cells

Nucleolus

44

Two chains containing nucleotide subunits
Nucleotides, sugar, phosphate base
Specific pairing of bases

DNA

45

Folded polypeptides composed of specific sequence of amino acids

Proteins

46

Functions of proteins

Structural component of cells
Enzyme catalyzing metabolic reactions
Secretory products

47

Sequence of three nucleotides that encodes a specific amino acid

Triplet or codon

48

Sequence of triplets providing the information for the synthesis of a particular protein

Gene

49

Single chain of nucleotide subunits

RNA

50

Types of RNA

Messenger RNA
Transfer RNA
Ribosomal RNA

51

A single strand RNA molecule transcribed from template DNA within the nucleus with the help of RNA polymerase II

mRNA

52

A triloop cloverleaf shaped single RNA strand that delivers amino acids to the translation site

tRNA

53

Complement codon in the mRNA
Loop on the tip of the clover leaf contains a group of three bases called ____________

Anti codon

54

An RNA and protein complex that catalyzes the attachment of each new amino acid onto the growing peptide chain

rRNA

55

Clumps of basophil ice material seen in the nucleus
Consists of DNA and associated proteins

Chromatin

56

Beads on a string
Consists of a core of eight histone molecules with two loops of DNA wrapped around the octomer

Nucleosome

57

Discrete bodies containing condensed and tightly coiled chromatin
Found in dividing cells

Chromosomes

58

Dark dense clumps adjacent to nuclear membrane
Inactive chromatin in a condensed state
More basophilic
Coiled

Heterochromatin

59

Active chromatin
Chromatin stretched out so genetic information of DNA can be read and transcribed

Euchromatin

61

Two parallel membranes separated by a perinuclear cisterna

Nuclear envelope

62

Avenue of communication between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm

Nuclear pore

63

Nuclear pore is closed by ______

Pore diaphragm

64

Nonmembranous structures associated with nuclear pore

Nuclear pore complex

65

Components of nuclear pore complex

8 particles attached to the inner and outer ring
8 radially arranged spokes projecting inward

66

Principal barrier to movement of particles >10 nm

Nuclear pore complex

67

Consists mainly of RNA and protein
Site of ribosomal RNA synthesis

Nucleolus

68

Extensive system of membrane bounded canaliculi
Consists of a series of flattened sacs arranged in parallel array

Endoplasmic reticulum

69

Series of flattened sacs in ER

cisternae

70

Two kinds of ER

Rough ER
Smooth ER

71

Continuous with nucleus
Outer surface of membranes contain ribosomes

Rough ER

72

Functions of rough ER

Synthesis of proteins for export from the cell
Synthesis of integral protein of the plasma membrane
Abundant in protein secreting cells

73

Absence of ribosomes in the membranes

Smooth ER

74

Functions of smooth ER

Synthesis of fatty acids and other lipids
Detoxification and metabolism of lipid-soluble exogenous drugs and alcohols
Abundant in steroid secreting endocrine glands

75

Complex structures composed of RNA and proteins
Composed of large and small subunit

Ribosomes

76

10 or more ribosomes may be associated with mRNA

Free ribosomes

77

Another term for free ribosomes

Polysomes

78

Involved in the synthesis of proteins to be used in cytosol

Free ribosomes

79

Involved in synthesis of proteins for export or for membrane system

Ribosomes attached to ER

80

Abundant in cells that produce a lot of secretion
Does not stain hence produces a negative image
Usually presents as an empty space in plasma cells

Golgi apparatus

81

Functions of golgi apparatus

Packaging
Concentrating
Sorting
Membrane synthesis

82

Convex side, outer, immature

cis-phase

83

Concave side, inner, mature

trans-phase

84

Provides energy for the biosynthetic and motor activities of the cell

Mitochondria

85

Principal biochemical activity

Oxidative phosphorylation

86

Two membranes of mitochondria

Smooth outer membrane
Cristae mitochondrialis

87

Two spaces of mitochondria

Intermembrane space
Intercristal space

88

Round, electron dense bodies
Assembled by fusion of vesicles coming from the Golgi complex and endosomes

Lysosome

89

Important in programmed cell death

Lysosome

90

Function similar to smooth ER
Oxidation of long chain fatty acids

Peroxisome
Microbodies

91

Peroxisomes contain _________

Oxidative enzymes
Catalase

92

Not membrane bound
Granular area witin the cytoplasm containing a pair of centrioles

Centrosome

93

Paired, short, rod-like bodies found near the nucleus in nondividing cells
Arranged perpendicularly with each other

Centrioles

94

Function of centrioles

Provide basal bodies (flagella and cilia)

95

Cytoplasmic inclusion
Visible through PAS stain

Glycogen

96

Cytoplasmic inclusion
Signet ring appearance

Lipid

97

Cytoplasmic inclusion
Pigment
Residual granules/bodies in a cell

Lipofuscin

98

Function of cytoskeleton

Structural support for the plasma membrane and cellular organelles
Movement of cellular organelles
Movement of cilia and flagella
Contractility of muscles

99

Composed of fine strands of the protein actin
Gives the peripheral region of the cytoplasm a firm gel-like consistency

Microfilament

100

Largest structural element of the cytoskeleton

Microtubules

101

Arises from the centrosome
Important role in deirecting movements of organelles and vesicles

Microtubules

102

Functions of microtubules

Transport of vesicles and organelles
Cell elongation and movement
Maintenance of cell shape
Beating of cilia and flagella
Movement of chromosomes

103

Stable supporting function of the cytoskeleton
intermediate in size between microfilament and microtubule

Intermediate filament

104

Main structural component of skin cells

Keratin filament

105

Study of the tissues of the body and how these tissues are arranged to constitute organs

Histology

106

Name the two interacting components of the tissues

Cells
Extracellular matrix

107

Consists of many kinds of macromolecules, most of which form complex structures

ECM

108

Supports the cells and the fluid that transports nutrients to the cells and carries away their catabolites and secretory products

ECM

109

Small pieces of tissue are placed in solutions of chemicals that preserve by cross-linking proteins and inactivating degradative enzymes

Fixation

110

Tissue is transferred through a series of increasingly concentrated alcohol solutions, ending in 100%
Remove water

Dehydration

111

Alcohol is removed in toulene or other agents in which both alcohol and paraffin are miscible

Clearing

112

Tissue is then placed in melted paraffin until it becomes completely infiltrated with this substance

Infiltration

113

Paraffin-infiltrated tissue is placed in a small mold with melted paraffin and allowed to harden

Embedding

114

The resulting paraffin block is trimmed to expose the tissue for sectioning on a microtome

Trimmming

115

Used for sectioning paraffin-embedded tissues for lilght microscopy

Microtome

116

Avoid tissue degradation by enzymes present within the cells or bacteria
Preserve cell and tissue structure

Fixation

117

Diffuse through the tissues to preserve all cells
React with the amine groups of tissue proteins to avoid degradation

Fixative

118

Widely used fixative

Formalin
Buffered isotonic solution of 37% formaldehyde

119

Fixative often used for electron microscopy

Glutaraldehyde

120

Using a buffered glutaraldehyde solution followed by immersion in buffered osmium tetroxide

Double-fixation procedure

121

Preserves membrane lipids as well as proteins

Osmium tetroxide

122

Embedding material for light microscopy

Paraffin

123

Embedding material for both light and electron microscopy

Plastic resin

124

Water is extracted from the fixed tissues by successive transfer through a graded series of ethanol and water

Dehydration

125

As organic solvent (miscible with both alcohol and embedding medium) infiltrates the tissues, they become more transparent

Clearing

126

The fully cleared tissue is then placed in melted paraffin in an oven at 52-60 deg C. The clearing solvent evaporates and the tissue is filled with liquid paraffin

Embedding

127

Avoids the higher temperatures needed for paraffin embedding, which helps avoid shrinkage and major distortion of the tissue

Plastic embeddin

128

Micron

Micrometer

129

Angstrom

Nanometer

130

Cells components with a net negative charge stain more readily with basic dyes

Basophilic

131

Cationic components that have affinity for acidic dyes

Acidophilic

132

Toluidine blue
Alcian blue
Methylene bluie
Hematoxylin

Basic dye

133

Eosin
Orange G
Acid fuchsin

Acid dye

134

Stain that can show nuclei and cytoplasm very well and distinguish extracellular components better than H&E

Trichomes
(Masson stain, Mallory stain)

135

Deoxyribose sugars are hydrolyzed by mild HCl

Feulgen reaction

136

Glycogen in liver and striated muscle can be demonstrated by ______

PAS

137

Short branched chains of sugars attached to specific amino acids

Glycoprotein

138

Anionic, unbranced long-chain polysaccharides containing aminated sugars

Glycosaminoglycan

139

GAGs attached to a core protein

Proteoglycan

140

Pretreatment of a tissue section with an enzyme that specifically digests one substrate

Enzyme digestion

141

Single stain that is applied separately to allow better recognition of nuclei and other structures

Counterstain

142

Lipophilic dye

Sudan black

143

Final step before microscopic observation

Mounting (Protective glass coverslip on the slide with clear adhesive)

144

Conventional bright-field microscopy
Fluorescence
Phase-contrast
Differential interference
Confocal
Polarizing microscopy

Light microscopy

145

Bright field microscope
Name the 3 optical components

Condenser
Objective
Eyepiece

146

Collects and focuses a cone of light that illuminates the object to be observed

Condenser

147

enlarges and projects the image of the object in the direction of the eyepiece

Objective lens

148

Further magnifies this image and projects it onto the viewer's retina or a charge-coupled device highly sensitive to low light levels with a monitor and camera

Eyepiece

149

Critical factor in obtaining a crisp, detailed image with a light microscope
Smallest distance between the two particles at which they can be seen as separate object

Resolving power

150

Based on the interaction of tissue components with beams of electrons

Electon microscopy

151

Imaging system that permits resolution around 3nm, which allows magnifications up to 400, 000x
Images are always black, white and shades of gray

Transmission electron microscopy

152

Imaging system: focused electron beam does not pass through the specimen, but rather is moved sequentially from point to point across its surface similar to the way an electron beam is scanned across the television tube or screen

Scanning electron microscope

153

Techniques that allow TEM study of cells without fixation or embedding (unfixed frozen cells, with fractured membranes or cut surfaces coated with carbon and heavy metal to make a replica of the surface for analysis)

Cryofracture
Freeze etching

154

Outermost component of the cell, separating the cytoplasm from its extracellular environment

Cell/Plasma membrane
Plasmalemma

155

Plasma membrane contains proteins called _____ linked to both cytoplasmic protein filaments and ECM components

Integrins

156

Fluid component of the cytoplasm

Cytosol

157

Metabolically active structures in the cytoplasm
Maybe membranous or nonmembranous protein complexes

Organelles

158

Determines the shape and motility of eukaryotic cells

Cytoskeleton

159

Minor cytoplasmic structures that are generally deposits of carbohydrates, lipids or pirgments

Inclusion

160

Functions as a selective barrier regulating the passage of materials into and out of the cell and facilitating the transport of specific molecules
Keeps the ion content of the cytoplasm constant

Cell/Plasma Membrane

161

Delicate cell surface coating
Some of the outer lipids include oligosaccharide chains that extend outward from the cells surface are called __________

Glycocalyx

162

Proteins in cell membrane that are directly incorporated within the lipid bilayer itself

Integral proteins

163

Proteins in cell membrane that exhibit a looser association with one of the two membrane surfaces

Peripheral proteins

164

Amphipathic, with a phosphate group charge on the polar head and two long, nonpolar fatty acid chains

Phospholipid

165

Membranes of animal cells have as their major lipid components ______ and _____

Phospholipid and cholesterol

166

Small electron-dense particles
Assemble the protein chain from amino acids

Ribosome

167

Synthesize cytosolic and cytoskeletal proteins and proteins for import into the nucleus, mitochondria, and peroxisomes

Free ribosome

168

Synthesize proteins that are to be incorporated into membranes, stored in lysosomes or eventually secreted from the cell

Ribosomes attached to the membranes of ER

169

Convoluted membranous network

Endoplasmic reticulum

170

Network of ER extends from the surface of the nucleus to the cell membrane and encloses a series of intercommunicating channels and sacs called ____

Cisternae

171

Prominent in cells, specialized from protein secretion
Consists of saclike as well as parallel stacks of flattened cisternae
Presence of ribosomes

Rough ER

172

Synthesis and segretation of proteins not destined for cytosol
Initial glycosylation of glycoproteins
Posttranslational modifications of newly formed polypeptides
Assembly of multichain proteins

Rough ER

173

Not basophilic (lack ribosomes)
Have enzymes for glycogen and lipid metabolism, detoxification reaction and temporary calcium sequestration
Phospholipid and steroid synthesis

Smooth ER

174

Completes the posttranslational modifications of proteins synthesized in the RER and then packages and addresses these proteins to proper destinations

Golgi apparatus

175

Transport material from RER cisternae to the golgi apparatus
Move along cytoskeletal polymers by motor proteins

Transport vesicles

176

Golgi-receiving region

cis face

177

Golgi-shippineg region

trans face

178

Site of intracellular digestion and turnover of celluar components

Lysosomes

179

Contain hydrolytic enzymes
Particularly abundant in cells with great phagocytic activity

Lysosomes

180

Enzymes of lysosomes have optimal activity at an ____ pH

acidic (around 5.0)

181

Indigestible material is rerained within a small vacuolar remnant (after digestion of macromolecules by lysosome)

Residual body

182

In some long-lived cells (neurons, heart muscle), residual bodies can accumulate over time as granules of ______

Lipofuscin

183

Process of digestion of excess or nonfunctional organelles and other cytoplasmic structures

Autophagy

184

Membrane-enclosed organelles with arrays of enzymes specialized for aerobic respiration and production of ATP

MItochondria

185

Two compartments of mitochondria

Matrix
Intermembrane space

186

Inner membrane of mitochondria is folded to form a series of long infoldings called _____
Project into the matrix and greatly increase this membrane's surface area

Cristae

187

Spherical organelles enclosed by a single membrane and named for their enzymes producing and degrading hydrogen peroxide

Peroxisomes

188

Peroxidase that can break down hydrogen peroxide

Catalase

189

Peroxidase that oxidize substrates by removing hydrogen atoms that are transferred to molecular oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide

Oxidase

190

Complex array of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments
Determine the shape of cell
Movement of organelles and cytoplasmic vesicles
Movement of entire cells

Cytoskeleton

191

Microtubules are organized into larger arryas called axonemes in the cytoplasmic extensions called ___ and ___

Cilia
Flagella

192

Composed of actin
Allow cellular motility and most contractile activity in cells, by reversible assmebly of the actin filaments and interactions between these filaments and the associated protein

Microfilament

193

Class of filaments intermediate in size between the other two
More stable than the other two

Intermediate filaments

194

Have little or no metabolic activity but contain accumulated metabolites or other substances not encolsed by membrane

Inclusion

195

Accumulation of lipid molecules

Fat droplets

196

Aggregates of the carbohydrate polymer in which glucose is stored
Visible when stained with PAS

Glycogen granules

197

Yellowish-brown pigment visualized by H&E staining in many cells, especially in stable nondividing cells
Wear-and-tear piagment

Lipofuscin

198

Dense brown aggregate of denatured ferritin proteins with many atoms of bound iron

Hemosiderin

199

Viscous fluid medium of cytoplasm with dissolved solutes
Provide support for organelles

Cytosol

200

Command center of the cell

Nucleus

201

Forms a selectively permeable barrier between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments

Nuclear envelope

202

Mass of DNA and associated protein

Chromatin

203

Nuclear envelope has two concentric membranes are separated by a narrow ______

perinuclear space

204

The inner and outer nuclear membranes are bridged at _____
Large assemblies of nucleoporins with eightfold symmetry through which proteins and protein-RNA complexes move in both directions

nuclear pore complexes

205

DNA molecule wraps around histones to form ___

nucleosome

206

Very basophilic or electron-dense area of chromatin localized where rRNA transcription and ribosomal subunits assembly occur

Nucleolus