2.18 The Hallmarks of Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.18 The Hallmarks of Cancer Deck (64)
1

Folic acid analog that kills rapidly dividing cells in the bone marrow

Aminopterin

2

Used in chemotherapy and obtained brief, tantalizing remission in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Aminopterin

3

Disease of the cell

Cancer

4

6 Hallmarks of cancer

Self-sufficiency in growth signals
Insensitivity to anti-growth signals
Evasion of apoptosis
Limitless replicative potential
Sustained angiogenesis
Tissue invasion and metastasis

5

Ability to proliferate even in the absence or low levels of signals from the outside world tat tell the cell to proliferate

Self sufficiency in growth signals

6

Cell's options and growth factors

Survive
Divide
Differentiate
Die

7

Abnormal proliferation can come from __ and ___

Mutation
Increased expression of growth factor receptors

8

In breast cancer, there is an increased expression of __

HER2 gene on chromosome 17

9

Infiltrating tumor cell nuclei are highlighted by the __ fluorescence in FISH

Blue

10

Most cells are in the G0 state and are kept there by ___

Antiproliferation signnals

11

Autosomal dominant disorder
Rare cancer of the retina
Gene responsible is found in chromosome 13

Retinoblastoma

12

In retinoblastoma, theis codes protein that keeps cells from proliferating

Rb gene

13

Stop cell division in response to internal or external signals

Tumor suppressor genes

14

Involved in transcription, DNA repair and cell-to-cell recognition

Tumor suppressor genes

15

Key regulator of cell cycle arrest through the cyclin-CDK complex

p53

16

Gene that reduces the probabiilty that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell

Tumor suppressor gene

17

Secreted by a fungus that can grow in certain food, known carcinogen

Aflatoxin

18

Produces a protein that has the ability to bind p53 and prevent it from interacting effectively with its target genes

Hepatitis B

19

Integrity of the cell's genome is monitored by the transcription factor ___

p53

20

Deletion or mutational silencing of __, __ or __ results in unregulated cell growth with an increased risk of tumor formation

p53
RB
INK4

21

Certain number of cell divisions that a cell is allowed to have before it stops

Hayflick limit

22

Shorten after each cell division

Telomeres

23

Repairs telomeres, can reverse the shortening and help immortalize cells

Telomeraase

24

Making blood vessels from pre-existing ones

Angiogenesis

25

Angiogenic factor (AF) binds to ___, which leads to intracellular signaling

Endothelial cell (EC) receptor

26

Important for triggering metastasis

Neovascularization

27

Antibody that binds to vascular endothelial growth factor, which doesn't kill cancer directly, but it prevents angiogenesis of tumors

Avastin

28

Fluoropyrimidine-based antineoplastic agent
Monoclonal antibody

Avastin

29

Crucial in identifying aggressive cancers versus those that are not aggressive or even those that are benign or malignant tumors

Metastasis

30

Local metastasis

Intravasation

31

Cancer spread to certain type of tissues

Metastasis

32

3 possible fates of metastasized cells

New colony
Cell Death
Dormancy

33

Apoptosis induced by the lack of correct cell/ECM attachment

Anoikis

34

Enzymes that degrade the ECM play crucial roles in invasion and metastasis, and high expression is correlated with (better/poorer) prognosis

Poorer

35

Coping strategies of cancer cells

Angiogenesis
Produce more growth factors
Recruite neighboring stromal cells
Disguise from the immune system
Cell tries to find a friendly environment

36

Able to get away from home tissuue

Metastasis

37

Emerging hallmarks

Avoiding immune destruction
Deregulating cellular energetics

38

Altered/missing MHC (major histocompatibility complex)

Avoiding immune destruction

39

Warburg effect
PET scanning to track glucose

Deregulated energetics in cancer

40

Where you see a lot of anaerobic activity happening compared to normal aerobic activity

Warburg effect

41

In tumor cells, glycolysis tends to go __ or __

Anaerobic;
Truncated TCA cycle where acetyl-CoA is used as a bulding block for proliferation

42

Enabling hallmarks

Genomic instability
Tumor promoting inflammation

43

Chronic inflammation, may lead to DNA damage due to production of mutagenic chemicals by cells of the immune system

Tumor promoting inflammation

44

Reactive oxygen species

Tumor promoting inflammation

45

Product of applied natural selection

Cancer

46

Can be used for myelodysplastic syndromes

DNA demethylation agents

47

Code for cell proliferation

Oncogenes

48

Growth promoters (not necessarily cancer gene)

Oncogenes

49

Gains-of-functions are associated with __

Oncogenes

50

Loss-of-function mutations are associated with __

Tumor suppressor genes

51

Normal gene that encodes a protein that regulates cell growth and proliferation andt that can be mutated to become a cancer-promoter oncogene

Proto-oncogene

52

Protective and loss of their functions contributes to cancer

TSG

53

True or false
Some miRNAs may become oncogenes or tumor suppressors by affecting the balance between normal cell cycling and cell death

True

54

Inherited mutations
Inherited in the germ line from the parents
Germ-line mutations occur in all cells of the individual

Germ-line mutation

55

Occur in one's lifetime

Somatic mutation

56

Biggest RF for cancer

Age

57

A lot of people have this certain type of muation

Common Variants

58

Have low penetrance

Common variaants

59

Higher risk than normal
CHEK2 1100delC is associated with increased breast cancer risk

Rare variants

60

Have moderate to high penetrance

Rare variants

61

Presence of Rb gene will most likely lead to retinoblastoma

Rare variants

62

Proportion of individuals with a mutation causing a particular disorder who exhibit clinical symptoms of that disorder

Penetrance

63

Standard adjuvant therapy in breast cancer focuses on __ and __

Proliferation
Apoptosis

64

True or false
Every cancer is different

True