2.14 Translation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.14 Translation Deck (81)
1

The genetic code is an organized collection of ___ and their corresponding ___

Codons
Amino acids

2

3-letter code (nucleic acid sequence) that specifies a particular amino acid

Codon

3

Start codon

AUG

4

AUG codes for ___

Methionine (Met, M)

5

Stop codons

UAA
UAG
UGA

6

No coded AA

Stop codons
UAA, UAG, UGA

7

Complementary to the codon

Anticodons

8

Anticodons are found within ___

tRNA

9

The process of converting a coded message within an mRNA into a protein

Protein Synthesis

10

Protein synthesis includes ___ and ___

Translation
Post-translational protein modifications

11

Protein synthesis requires

mRNA
Aminoacyl tRNA
Ribosomes
Translation factors

12

The adapter molecule

tRNA

13

True or false
Each tRNA holds at least five AA.

False
It holds a single AA

14

Part of tRNA

Acceptor arm
D arm
Thymidine-Pseudouridine-Cystidine Arm
Anticodon Arm

15

Where AA is attached

Acceptor arm

16

AA is attached at the __ of tRNA

3'

17

Recognition site for specific aminoacyl-tRNA sythetase

D arm

18

D arm is rich in ___

Dihydrouridine

19

Binds aminoacyltRNA to ribosomal subunit

Thymidine-pseudouridine-cystidine arm

20

Seven-letter code containing the anticodon

Anticodon arm

21

Anticodon arm reads from __ to __

3'; 5'

22

Binds specific amino acids with their corresponding tRNAs, with the help of ATP

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

23

Amino acids are attached via their ___ at the 3' end of the tRNA with an ester bond, forming an aminoacyl tRNA

carbonyl end

24

Third process of the central dogma that involves the conversion of RNA into a protein product

Translation

25

5 characteristics of Translation

Degenerate
Unambiguous
Non-overlapping
Unpunctuated
Universal

26

Multiple codons can code for the same amino acid

Degenerate

27

A particular codon can code only for a single amino acid

Unambiguous

28

During translation, there is no overlap in reading codons

Non-overlapping

29

No punctuation exists between or within codons

Unpunctuated

30

The genetic code is the same for all animal species

Universal

31

Phases of translation

Initiation
Elongation
Termination

32

Processes under initation

Dissociation
43s preinitiation complex
48s initiation complex
80s initiation complex

33

Ribosomes dissociate into __ and __ subunits, which are usually coupled/associated need to open up to accommodate mRNA for translation

40s and 60s

34

Key initiation factors in dissociation

eIF-3 and eIF-1A

35

Prevents re-association of subunits

Initiation factors

36

Key initiation factor in the formation of 43s preinitiation complex

eIF-2

37

Components of 43s Preinitiation complex

eIF-2
GTP
Met-tRNA
40s subunit

38

Binding of mRNA to 43s pre-initiation complex

Formation of 48s initiation complex

39

Formation of 48s initiation complex is done via ___, which binds the two (mRNA, 43s)

methyl-guanosyl triphosphate cap

40

Counterpart of 5'methyl cap in prokaryotes

Shine-Dalgarno sequences

41

Key initiation factors

eIF-4F complex (eIF-4G, eIF-4E, eIF-4A, eIF-4B)

42

Responsible from binding and removal of 5' methyl cap

eIF-4F compelx

43

Scaffolding protein that holds the other initiation factos

eIF-4G

44

Responsible for recognizing and binding to methyl cap

eIF-4E

45

The rate-limiting step/slowest step in all of translation

Recognition and binding of eIF-4E

46

Inhibits initiation when bound to eIF-4E

BP-1

47

eIF-4A and eIF-4B remove 5' methyl cap from the rest of the mRNA through __ via __ activity

Cleavage of H-bonds
Helicase

48

Also required for efficient protein synthesis
Stimulates the recruitment of the 40s subunit to the mRNA

Poly-A tail

49

48s initiation complex begins to scan for ___

Kozak consensus sequences

50

Cover purines from -3 to +4 around the AUG sequence

Kozak consensus sequences

51

48s initiation complex binds to 60 subunit
40s and 60s subunits undergo reassociation, along with mRNA and the Met-tRNA

Formation of 80s Initiation complex

52

Key initiation factor in the formation of 80s Initiation complex

eIF-5

53

Hydrolyzes the GTP that was bound to eIF-2

eIF-5

54

40s + 60s subunits + mRNA (w/o 5' methyl cap) + Met-tRNA

80s Initiation complex

55

Bind to dissociate 40s to prevent reassocation with 60s

eIF-3
eIF-1A

56

Allows other IF's to associate to 40s subunit throughout initiation

eIF-3
eIF-1A

57

Binds GTP and the Met-tRNA

eIF-2

58

Facilitates binding of the GTP-Met-tRNA complex to the 40s subunit

eIF-2

59

Cap-binding protein complex

eIF-4F

60

Scans for Kozak consensus sequence and AUG

eIF-4F

61

Binds to 5' cap

eIF-4E

62

Part of eIF-4F complex

eIF-4E
eIF-4G
eIF-4A
eIF-4B

63

Scaffold protein

eIF-4G

64

Binds to eIF-4E and poly-A tail

eIF-4G

65

Has helicase activity that removes the 5' methyl cap

eIF-4A
eIF-4B

66

Hydrolyzes GTP bound to eIF-2 in order to remove all IF's bound to the 48s initiation complex

eIF-5

67

Processes under elongation phase

A-site attachment
Peptide bond formation
Translocation

68

eEF-1alpha complexes/binds with GTP

A-site attachment

69

Only a ___ will trigger a confomational change that causes the hydrolysis of GTP which is bound to eEF-1alpha

Complementary anticodon

70

Once second aminoacyl tRNA is bound to A site, the amino group of A site aminoacyl tRNA willmake a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl group of __

P site aminoacyl tRNA

71

Peptide bond formation is facilitated by ____, a ribozyme component of the 60s subunit

peptidyltransferases

72

A-site contains a ___ attached to the tRNA while the P-side contains a ___ tRNA

Dipeptide
Deacylated

73

In translocation, ____ facilitates the transfer of A-site tRNA to the P-site

eEF-2 + GTP

74

Total energy requirement per AA attached to the growing chain

4 high energy phosphates (2 ATPs, 2 GTPs)

75

Binds with GTP

eEF-1alpha

76

Brings the second amunoacyl tRNA to the A-site in the complex

eEF-1alpha

77

Facilitates transfer of A-site tRNA to P-site

eEF-2

78

Stops codons enter the A-site
Releasing factors eRF + GTP + peptidyltransferase remove the growing peptide from the P-site tRNA
mRNA detaches from the ribosome
Ribosome complex dissociates into 40s and 60s subunits

Termination phase

79

Responds to UAA, UAG stop codons

eRF-1

80

Responds to UAA, UGA stop codones

eRF-2

81

Binds GTP

eRF-3