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Flashcards in 2.3 Lesson Deck (108)
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1
Q

What is the preterite tense in Spanish?

A

The preterite is one of two past tenses in Spanish. It is associated with a single action that is terminated and complete, rather than an action that was ongoing for a period of time.

2
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I studied with my cousins

A

Estudié con mis primos

I studied - estudié

3
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Do you think that I studied last night? Because I didn't study

A

¿Piensas que estudié anoche? Porque no estudié

last night - anoche

4
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Rodrigo, did you study with your girlfriend?

A

Rodrigo, ¿estudiaste con tu novia?

you studied - estudiaste

5
Q

Translate to Spanish.

That is not true; María did not study with my sister. She studied with my cousin

A

Eso no es verdad; María no estudió con mi hermana. Estudió con mi primo

he/she studied - estudió

6
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Since Raquel did not study yesterday, she is scared to take the test today

A

Como Raquel no estudió ayer, entonces tiene miedo de tomar el examen hoy

yesterday - ayer

7
Q

Translate to Spanish.

What are you saying? We did study yesterday!

A

¿Qué dices? ¡Nosotros sí estudiamos ayer!

we studied - estudiamos

8
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You (vosotros) did not study last night

A

Vosotros no estudiasteis anoche

you (vosotros) studied - estudiasteis

9
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Maite and Ricardo studied for their art test

A

Maite y Ricardo estudiaron para su examen de arte

they, you (uds) studied - estudiaron

10
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO STUDY (Preterite Tense)

  • I studied
  • You studied
  • He/She studied
  • We studied
  • You studied
  • They studied
A

ESTUDIAR (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo estudié
  • Tú estudiaste
  • Él/Ella/Ud estudió
  • Nosotros estudiamos
  • Vosotros estudiasteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds estudiaron
11
Q

What are the endings of regular - ar verbs (such as estudiar) conjugated in the preterite?

A

Regular Preterite -ar endings

  • -é (yo)
  • -aste (tú)
  • -ó (él, ella, usted)
  • -amos (nosotros)
  • -asteis (vosotros)
  • -aron (ellos, ellas)
12
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I did not learn anything this year. Did you?

A

No aprendí nada este año, ¿y tú?

I learned - aprendí. Note that is the regular preterite ending for both -er and -ir verbs in the first person singluar form (yo)

13
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Miguel, you didn't learn anything in this class

A

Miguel, tú no aprendiste nada en esta clase

you learned - aprendiste

14
Q

Translate to Spanish.

What did José learn from reading this book?

A

¿Qué aprendió José de leer este libro?

he/she learned - aprendió

15
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Monica and I learned to drive yesterday

A

Monica y yo aprendimos a conducir ayer

we learned - aprendimos

16
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Did you (vosotros) learn how to cook at home?

A

¿Aprendisteis a cocinar en casa?

you (vosotros) learned - aprendisteis

17
Q

Translate to Spanish.

They say that they didn't learn anything this year

A

Dicen que no aprendieron nada este año

they learned - aprendieron

18
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO LEARN (Preterite Tense)

  • I learned
  • You learned
  • He/She learned
  • We learned
  • You learned
  • They learned
A

APRENDER (Tiempo pretérito)

  • Yo aprendí
  • Tú aprendiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud aprendió
  • Nosotros aprendimos
  • Vosotros aprendisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds aprendieron
19
Q

What are the endings of regular - er and -ir verbs (such as aprender) conjugated in the preterite?

A

Regular Preterite -er and -ir endings

  • -í (yo)
  • -iste (tú)
  • -ió (él, ella, usted)
  • -imos (nosotros)
  • -isteis (vosotros)
  • -ieron (ellos, ellas)
20
Q

Translate to Spanish.

This is the last dessert that we have

A

Este es el último postre que tenemos

last - último. Note that último can be used as both an adjective and as an adverb

21
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Did you learn anything last year?

A

¿Aprendiste algo el año pasado?

last year - el año pasado. Note that that you are literally saying "the year past". This would apply whenever you are talking about time that has gone by, such as a year, a month, or a week: el año pasado, el mes pasado, or la semana pasada

22
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I lived in Mexico last year

A

Yo viví en México el año pasado

I lived - viví. Note that vivir follows a regular -ir ending pattern of conjugation in the preterite

23
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Marcos, did you live in a big house?

A

Marcos, ¿viviste en una casa grande?

you lived - viviste

24
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Our professor lived in this building right here

A

Nuestro profesor vivió en este edificio aquí

he/she lived - vivió

25
Q

Translate to Spanish.

We never lived in Spain; we lived in Mexico

A

Nunca vivimos en España; vivimos en México

we lived - vivimos

26
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Alejandro says that you (vosotros) lived with your grandmother

A

Alejandro dice que vosotros vivisteis con vuestra abuela

you (vosotros) lived - vivisteis

27
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Did Pepe, Esperanza, and Xavier live there?

A

¿Vivieron allí Pepe, Esperanza y Xavier?

they lived - vivieron

28
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO LIVE (Preterite Tense)

  • I lived
  • You lived
  • He/She lived
  • We lived
  • You lived
  • They lived
A

VIVIR (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo viví
  • Tú viviste
  • Él/Ella/Ud vivió
  • Nosotros vivimos
  • Vosotros vivisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds vivieron

Remember that the conjugation of regular -ir verbs in the preterite is the same as for -er verbs

29
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Maricarmen never cleaned the kitchen

A

Maricarmen nunca limpió la cocina

to clean - limpiar

30
Q

Translate to Spanish.

We watched a movie last night

A

Vimos una película anoche

movie - la película

31
Q

Translate to Spanish.

The movie ended at midnight

A

La película terminó a medianoche

to end - terminar

32
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I already sent the letter

A

Ya mandé la carta

to send, to command - mandar. Remember that we can use both enviar and mandar to mean "to send"

33
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You never sent the email

A

Nunca mandaste el correo electrónico

email - el correo electrónico. Note that correo also means regular "mail", and that some countries simply use the English word "email" in their Spanish conversation

34
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Did Jaime receive the email?

A

¿Recibió Jaime el correo electrónico?

Note that Spanish does not have an equivalent helping verb to the English word "Did". Instead, we simply begin the question with the conjugated verb, and place the subject directly after it

35
Q

Translate to Spanish.

My sister's baby is going to be born in three days

A

El bebé de mi hermana va a nacer en tres días

to be born - nacer

36
Q

Translate to Spanish.

My grandmother was born ninety-nine years ago

A

Mi abuela nació hace noventa y nueve años

(length of time) ago - hace (medida de tiempo)

37
Q

Translate to Spanish.

And the man came out suddenly

A

Y el hombre salió de repente

suddenly - de repente

38
Q

Translate to Spanish.

The female students are over here with us

A

Las estudiantes están acá con nosotros

over here - acá

39
Q

What are the uses of aquí, acá, allí, and allá?

A
  • aquí, acá -->"here". The variation in meaning depends on the country
  • allí -->"there" and means that something is less near
  • allá -->"over there" and means that something is farther
40
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I do not want that orange; I want that one that is way over there

A

No quiero esa naranja; quiero aquella que está allá

that one - aquel. Note that aquel expresses that the object is far away. Also note that the plural for aquel is aquellos

41
Q

What is the meaning of este, esta, esto and their respective plural forms?

A
  • este --> masculine for "this"; estos--> masculine plural for "these"
  • esta --> feminine for "this"; estas --> feminine plural for "these"
  • esto --> gender neutral for "this" and is never followed by a noun
  • éste --> masculine for "this one"; éstos --> masculine plural for "these ones". They are never followed by a noun
  • ésta --> feminine for "this one"; éstas --> feminine plural for "these ones". They are never followed by a noun
42
Q

What is the meaning of ese, esa, eso and their respective plural forms?

A
  • ese --> masculine for "that"; esos --> masculine plural for "those"
  • esa --> feminine for "that" ; esas --> feminine plural for "those"
  • eso --> gender neutral for "that" and is never followed by a noun
43
Q

What is the meaning of aquel, aquella, aquello and their respective plural forms?

A
  • aquel --> masculine for "that one over there"; aquellos --> masculine plural for "those over there"
  • aquella --> feminine for "that one over there"; aquellas --> feminine plural for "those over there"
  • aquello --> gender neutral for "that over there" and is never followed by a noun
44
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I was a good student

A

Yo fui un buen estudiante

I was - fui. Note that fui is the irregular preterite form of ser ("to be") in the first person singular (yo). Also note that fui indicates that at one time you were a good student. If you mean to say that you "used to be" a good student during a protracted amount of time, you would use the imperfect tense, which we will learn later.

45
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You were Marta's friend, but you're not her friend anymore

A

Fuiste amigo de Marta, pero ahora ya no eres su amigo

you were - fuiste

46
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Pamela was an art teacher

A

Pamela fue maestra de arte

he/she was - fue

47
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Jaime and I were best friends

A

Jaime y yo fuimos mejores amigos

we were - fuimos

48
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You (vosotras) were beautiful

A

Vosotras fuisteis guapas

you (vosotros/as) were - fuisteis

49
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO BE (ser, Preterite Tense)

  • I was
  • You were
  • He/She was
  • We were
  • You were
  • They were
A

SER (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo fui
  • fuiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud fue
  • Nosotros fuimos
  • Vosotros fuisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds fueron

Note that the conjugations for ser in the preterite tense are irregular and are conjugated the same as they are for ir

50
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO GO (Preterite Tense)

  • I went
  • You went
  • He/She went
  • We went
  • You went
  • They went
A

IR (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo fui
  • fuiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud fue
  • Nosotros fuimos
  • Vosotros fuisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds fueron

Remember that the conjugations for ir in the preterite tense are irregular and are the same as they are for ser

51
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I went to the restaurant with my aunt and uncle

A

Fui al restaurante con mis tíos

I went - fui. Note that the irregular preterite forms of ir are exactly the same as they are for ser

52
Q

Translate to Spanish.

José, did you go to school yesterday?

A

José, ¿fuiste a la escuela ayer?

you went - fuiste

53
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Paloma did not go to the beach last week

A

Paloma no fue a la playa la semana pasada

he/she went - fue

54
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Our grandmother is sick; therefore we didn't go to her house on Sunday

A

Nuestra abuela está enferma, entonces no fuimos a su casa el domingo

we went - fuimos

55
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Did you (vosotros) go to art class at noon?

A

¿Fuisteis a la clase de arte a mediodía?

you (vosotros) went - fuisteis

56
Q

Translate to Spanish.

They didn't go to swim; they went to eat

A

Ellos no fueron a nadar; fueron a comer

they went - fueron

57
Q

Translate to Spanish.

They say she left with Marcos. I don't believe it

A

Dicen que se fue con Marcos. No lo creo yo

While in English, placing spoken emphasis on the subject ("I don't believe it") is enough to convey semantic emphasis, in Spanish we emphasize the subject by placing it after the verb

58
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I was in Pepe's house all afternoon

A

Estuve en casa de Pepe toda la tarde

I was - estuve. Note that in the preterite tense, estar follows an irregular conjugation pattern

59
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Were you in the kitchen? Because someone cooked my chicken

A

¿Estuviste en la cocina? Porque alguién cocinó mi pollo

you were - estuviste

60
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Fernanda was not with Marcos; she was with Maite

A

Fernanda no estuvo con Marcos; estuvo con Maite

he/she was - estuvo

61
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Mauricio walked from here up to over there

A

Mauricio caminó desde aquí hasta allá

until, to, up to - hasta

62
Q

Translate to Spanish.

They went up to the Atlantic coast

A

Fueron hasta la costa del Atlántico

coast - la costa

63
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Thanks for coming Mauricio. I'll see you later!

A

Gracias por venir Mauricio, y ¡hasta luego!

see you later - hasta luego. This literally means "until later"

64
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Valentina and her mom are never in agreement

A

Valentina y su mamá nunca están de acuerdo

in agreement - de acuerdo

65
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Alright mom, I will come home early

A

De acuerdo mamá, voy a volver a casa temprano OR Está bien mamá . . .

alright - está bien, de acuerdo

66
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Alright, I will go with you to Marta's house on Friday night. See you soon!

A

Está bien, voy a ir contigo a la casa de Marta el viernes por la noche. ¡Hasta pronto!

see you soon - hasta pronto

67
Q

Translate to Spanish.

See you tomorrow Carlos!

A

¡Hasta mañana Carlos!

see you tomorrow - hasta mañana

68
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Even the chef is hungry

A

Hasta el cocinero tiene hambre

Note that the word hasta loosely translates to the English word "even" in this case. Think of it as, "[Everyone], up to the chef, is hungry"

69
Q

Translate to Spanish.

We were with Ana from five in the afternoon until dawn. What a crazy night!

A

Estuvimos con Ana desde las cinco de la tarde hasta la madrugada. ¡Qué noche tan loca!

we were - estuvimos

70
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO BE (estar, Preterite)

  • I was
  • You were
  • He/She was
  • We were
  • You were
  • They were
A

ESTAR (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo estuve
  • Tú estuviste
  • Él/Ella/Ud estuvo
  • Nosotros estuvimos
  • Vosotros estuvisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds estuvieron

Remember that the conjugations for estar in the preterite tense are irregular

71
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I didn't do that, it was Miguel

A

Yo no hice eso, fue Miguel

I did/made - hice. Note that hice is the irregular preterite form of hacer in the first person singular. All preterite forms of hacer are irregular

72
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You did all of this for your girlfriend? You are such a good boyfriend!

A

¿Hiciste todo esto para tu novia? ¡Eres un novio tan bueno!

you did/made - hiciste

73
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Linda did not do her homework, and now she wants to go out. What are we going to do with her?

A

Linda no hizo su tarea y ahora quiere salir. ¿Qué vamos a hacer con ella?

he/she did/made - hizo

74
Q

Translate to Spanish.

We didn't make anything for dinner and now we are very hungry

A

No hicimos nada de cenar y ahora tenemos mucha hambre

we did/made - hicimos

75
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Marcos is not Silvia's boyfriend anymore

A

Marcos ya no es novio de Silvia

not anymore - ya no

76
Q

Translate to Spanish.

What did you (vosotros) do? I can't deal with you anymore!

A

¿Qué hicisteis? ¡Ya no puedo más con vosotros!

you (vosotros) did/made - hicisteis

77
Q

Translate to Spanish.

They did their homework until ten at night, but they finished.

A

Hicieron su tarea hasta las diez de la noche, pero ya terminaron

they did/made - hicieron

78
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO DO/MAKE (Preterite)

  • I made
  • You made
  • He/She made
  • We made
  • You made
  • They made
A

Hacer (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo hice
  • hiciste
  • Él/Ella/Ud hizo
  • Nosotros hicimos
  • Vosotros hicisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds hicieron

Remember that the conjugations for hacer in the preterite tense are irregular

79
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I had a dream last night

A

Tuve un sueño anoche

I had - tuve. Note that tuve is the irregular preterite form of tener in the first person singular. All the preterite forms of tener are irregular

80
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Did you have to go to the beach with your family this weekend?

A

¿Tuviste que ir a la playa con tu familia este fín de semana?

you had (to) - tuviste (que)

81
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Do you know if Margarita had to read all of those books for today?

A

¿Sabes si Margarita tuvo que leer todos esos libros para hoy?

he/she had (to) - tuvo (que)

82
Q

Translate to Spanish.

This time, we only had two hours to finish the exam

A

Esta vez sólo tuvimos dos horas para terminar el examen

we had - tuvimos

83
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Do you know if Mariana finished making lunch?

A

¿Sabes si Mariana ya terminó de hacer el almuerzo?

to finish - terminar de. Note that when terminar goes before the verb, you must add de after the verb, terminar + de + infinitive

84
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I know that Esperanza and Raquel had to do a lot of things, but I think that they already finished

A

Sé que Esperanza y Raquel tuvieron que hacer muchas cosas, pero creo que ya terminaron

they had - tuvieron

85
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO HAVE (Preterite Tense)

  • I had
  • You had
  • He/She had
  • We had
  • You had
  • They had
A

TENER (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo tuve
  • tuviste
  • Él/Ella/Ud tuvo
  • Nosotros tuvimos
  • Vosotros tuvisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds tuvieron

Remember that the conjugations for tener in the preterite tense are irregular

86
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I never knew that she went out at five

A

Nunca supe que ella salió a las cinco

I knew - supe. Note that supe is the irregular preterite form of saber in the first person singular. All preterite forms of saber are irregular

87
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You didn't know (preterite) that Mariana was here yesterday?

A

¿No supiste que Mariana estuvo aquí ayer?

you knew - supiste

88
Q

Translate to Spanish.

We are not going to enter because I am afraid of the house

A

No vamos a entrar porque tengo miedo de la casa

to enter - entrar

89
Q

Translate to Spanish.

We didn't know how to get to your house yesterday

A

Ayer no supimos como llegar a tu casa

we knew - supimos

90
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Did you (vosotros) know how to cook the meat?

A

¿Supisteis como cocinar la carne?

you (vosotros) knew - supisteis

91
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Maricarmen and Eduardo never knew that I know your brother

A

Maricarmen y Eduardo nunca supieron que yo conozco a tu hermano

they knew - supieron

92
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO KNOW (Preterite)

  • I knew
  • You knew
  • He/She knew
  • We knew
  • You knew
  • They knew
A

SABER (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo supe
  • supiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud supo
  • Nosotros supimos
  • Vosotros supisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds supieron

Remember that the conjugations for saber in the preterite tense are irregular

93
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Poor Miguel, he never knew why Sandra didn't want to be his girlfriend

A

Pobre Miguel, nunca supo por qué Sandra no quiso ser su novia

poor (unfortunate) - pobre. If pobre is used before the noun, it means "unfortunate". If used after the noun, it means "without money"

94
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Beautiful people are not always very interesting

A

La gente bella no siempre es muy interesante

people - la gente. Note that in Spanish, the word gente is treated like a singular noun, and verbs are conjugated accordingly

95
Q

Translate to Spanish.

The poor people from here don't have money to buy food

A

La gente pobre de aquí no tiene dinero para comprar comida

poor (without money) - pobre. If pobre is used before the noun, it means "unfortunate". If used after the noun, it means "without money"

96
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I can't believe that you spent all of your money on me

A

No puedo creer que gastaste todo tu dinero en mí

to spend (money) - gastar

97
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I spent three hours at the hospital

A

Pasé tres horas en el hospital

to spend (time) - pasar

98
Q

Translate to Spanish.

There is so much poverty in the world

A

Hay tanta pobreza en el mundo

poverty - la pobreza

99
Q

Translate to Spanish.

In this world there are a lot of poor people

A

En este mundo hay mucha gente pobre

world - el mundo

100
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Those people are angry because of so much poverty

A

Esas personas están enojadas a causa de tanta pobreza

people (individuals) - las personas (f). The word personas is used instead of gente when emphasizing their individualilty. Gente is used more to refer to collective groups

101
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Sofía calls her boyfriend every day

A

Sofía llama a su novio todos los días

to call - llamar

102
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I couldn't go out because I didn't do my homework

A

No pude salir porque no hice mi tarea

I could - pude. Note that pude is the preterite of poder and that poder can also be translated as "to be able to"

103
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Were you able to go to the museum yesterday?

A

¿Pudiste ir al museo ayer?

you could - pudiste

104
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Do you (uds) know if María was able to go to the beach with Alejandro?

A

¿Saben si María pudo ir a la playa con Alejandro?

he/she could - pudo

105
Q

Translate to Spanish.

We couldn't call on time. We are sorry

A

No pudimos llamar a tiempo. Lo sentimos

we could - pudimos

106
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You (vosotros) were not able to go, right?

A

Vosotros no pudisteis ir, ¿verdad?

you (vosotros) could - pudisteis

107
Q

Translate to Spanish.

They were not able to travel to Spain, and now they are sad

A

Ellos no pudieron viajar a España, y ahora están tristes

they could - pudieron

108
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO BE ABLE TO (Preterite)

  • I could
  • You could
  • He/She could
  • We could
  • You could
  • They could
A

PODER (Tiempo Pretérito)

  • Yo pude
  • pudiste
  • Él/Ella/Ud pudo
  • Nosotros pudimos
  • Vosotros pudisteis
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds pudieron

Remember that the conjugations for poder in the preterite tense are irregular