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Flashcards in 2.9 Lesson Deck (71)
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1
Q

What is a past participle?

A

The past participle is a verb form that is essential to the conjugation of compound tenses. Past participles are also often used as adjectives or for the passive voice. In English, past participles end in "-ed" or "-en": "I've already cooked - Ya he cocinado. "I've already eaten" - Ya he comido.

2
Q

How do you form a past participle?

A

The past participle for regular verbs is formed by adding -ado to the stem of -ar verbs or -ido to the stem of -er or -ir verbs.

3
Q

Can past participles be used as adjectives?

A

Yes, past participles are often used as adjectives. When they do, they agree in number and gender: "The girls are tired" --> Las niñas están cansadas.

4
Q

What is the present perfect tense in Spanish?

A

The present perfect tense is constructed by using the auxiliary verb haber (have) with the past participle of the primary verb:

  • An immediate past: "She hasn't eaten yet" --> Todavía no ha comido
  • Information independent of time: "I haven't gone out with Jorge" --> No he salido con Jorge
  • A past inhabited by the speaker: "Recently, I've been very sad" --> Recientemente he estado muy triste
5
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I haven't eaten yet

A

Todavía no he comido

I have (present perfect) - yo he. Notice that we already learned the impersonal conjugation of haber in the third person (hay--> there is, there are). When haber is used as an auxiliary verb, as it is used here, it can be conjugated for every person

6
Q

Translate to Spanish:

I've canceled the trip

A

He cancelado el viaje

canceled - cancelado. This is the past participle of the verb cancelar. Add -ado to the stem of the verb.

7
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You haven't done your homework

A

No has hecho tu tarea

you have (present perfect) - tú has

8
Q

Translate to Spanish:

Repeat what you have learned

A

Repite lo que has aprendido

learned - aprendido. This is the past participle of the verb aprender. Add -ido to the stem of the verb.

9
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Monica has been happy lately

A

Monica ha estado contenta últimamente

he/she has (present perfect) - él/ella/ud ha

10
Q

Translate to Spanish:

She's lived in 12 countries

A

Ella ha vivido en doce países

lived - vivido (-ir past participle)

11
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Eduardo, Miguel and I have not gone out yet

A

Eduardo, Miguel, y yo todavía no hemos salido

we have (present perfect) - nosotros hemos

12
Q

Translate to Spanish:

We've already explained it to her

A

Ya se lo hemos explicado

explained - explicado (-ar past participle)

13
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You (vosotros) have not loved

A

Vosotros no habéis amado

you have (present perfect) - vosotros habéis

14
Q

Translate to Spanish:

You all have not met my friend Alexander?

A

¿No habéis conocido a mi amigo Alejandro?

met - conocido (-er past participle)

15
Q

Translate to Spanish.

They have not finished their homework

A

Ellos no han terminado su tarea

they have (present perfect) - ellos/ellas/uds han

16
Q

Translate to Spanish:

His books have been translated into many languages

A

Sus libros han sido traducidos a muchos idiomas

translated - traducido (-ir past participle)

17
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO HAVE (Present Perfect)

  • I have (eaten)
  • You have (eaten)
  • He/She has (eaten)
  • We have (eaten)
  • You have (eaten)
  • They have (eaten)
A

HABER (Tiempo Pretérito Perfecto)

  • Yo he (comido)
  • has (comido)
  • Él/Ella/Ud ha (comido)
  • Nosotros hemos (comido)
  • Vosotros habéis (comido)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds han (comido)
18
Q

What is the past participle ending for -ar verbs like amar?

A

Participio de verbos que terminan en -ar como amar (-ado)

  • Yo he amado
  • Tú has amado
  • Él ha amado
  • Nosotros hemos amado
  • Vosotros habéis amado
  • Ellos han amado
19
Q

What is the past participle ending for -er and -ir verbs like comer?

A

Participio de verbos que terminan en -er e -ir como comer (-ido)

  • Yo he comido
  • Tú has comido
  • Él ha comido
  • Nosotros hemos comido
  • Vosotros habéis comido
  • Ellos han comido
20
Q

What is the Past Perfect Tense in Spanish?

A

The Past Perfect Tense is formed by using haber as an auxiliary verb. Haber is conjugated in the imperfect tense with the past participle of the primary verb. It describes the past of the past:

  • "They had already left" --> Ya se habían ido
  • "They had eaten all of the food" --> Habían comido toda la comida
21
Q

Translate to Spanish:

When they got back, I had already eaten

A

Cuando volvieron, yo ya había comido

I had eaten (past perfect) - (yo) había comido. Note that in Spanish compound tenses, the helping verb haber and its participle are never separated.

22
Q

Translate to Spanish:

You had done a lot for them

A

Tú habías hecho mucho para ellos

you had done (past perfect) - habías hecho

23
Q

Translate to Spanish:

Monica had been happy

A

Mónica había estado feliz

he/she had been (past perfect) - (él/ella/Ud) había estado

24
Q

Translate to Spanish:

My brother and I had reserved a hotel room

A

Mi hermano y yo habíamos reservado un cuarto en el hotel

we had reserved (past perfect) - habíamos reservado

25
Q

Translate to Spanish:

You all had already left when they arrived

A

Ustedes ya se habían ido cuando llegaron

you had left (past perfect, Spain) - habíais ido

26
Q

Translate to Spanish:

They had sung for the president

A

Habían cantado para el presidente

they had sung (past perfect) - habían cantado

27
Q

Translate to Spanish:

I had moved to California for a year

A

Me había mudado a California por un año

I had moved (changed residence) - me había mudado. Recall that mudarse is a reflexive verb, and that the reflexive pronoun should go before the helping verb in compound tenses.

28
Q

Translate to Spanish:

Had you reserved a hotel room before your trip?

A

¿Habías reservado un cuarto en el hotel antes del viaje?

you had reserved (in a hotel, restaurant) - tú habías reservado

29
Q

Translate to Spanish:

She had bumped into an old friend in Berlin

A

Ella se había tropezado con un viejo amigo en Berlín

he/she had bumped into (past perfect) - él/ella/Ud se había tropezado con

30
Q

Translate to Spanish:

We had told her everything

A

Le habíamos contado todo

We had told (past perfect) - nosotros habíamos contado

31
Q

Translate to Spanish:

The teacher had posed a dificult problem to the class

A

La profesora había propuesto un problema difícil a la clase

she had posed, put forward (past perfect) - ella había propuesto

32
Q

Translate to Spanish:

They had announced the good news before the party

A

Habían anunciado las buenas noticias antes de la fiesta

they had announced (past perfect) - ellos/ellas/Uds habían anunciado

33
Q

Translate to Spanish:

I had already prepared it beforehand

A

Ya lo había preparado anteriormente

earlier, beforehand, previously - anteriormente

34
Q

Translate to Spanish.

TO HAVE (Past Perfect)

  • I had (eaten)
  • You had (eaten)
  • He/She had (eaten)
  • We had(eaten)
  • You had (eaten)
  • They had (eaten)
A

HABER (Tiempo Pluscuamperfecto)

  • Yo había (comido)
  • Tú habías (comido)
  • Él/Ella/Ud había (comido)
  • Nosotros habíamos (comido)
  • Vosotros habíais (comido)
  • Ellos/Ellas/Uds habían (comido)
35
Q

What are irregular past participles?

A

Some past participles in Spanish are irregular in that they do not end in -ado or -ido. Instead, they have entirely irregular forms: "I've already returned the books George lent me" --> Ya he devuelto los libros que Jorge me prestó.

36
Q

Translate to Spanish:

You've opened my eyes to the truth

A

Me has abierto los ojos a la verdad

opened - abierto. Note that this is the irregular past participle of the verb abrir. The form abrido does not exsit.

37
Q

Translate to Spanish:

The boy covers the table with a tablecloth

A

El niño cubre la mesa con un mantel

to cover, conceal - cubrir

38
Q

Translate to Spanish:

The company has covered all the costs

A

La empresa ha cubierto todos los costos

covered, concealed (irregular past participle) - cubierto. The noun costo comes from the verb costar, "to cost." An alternative is gasto, or "expense."

39
Q

Translate to Spanish:

She's told me everything about the trip

A

Me ha dicho todo sobre el viaje

said, told - dicho. Note that this is the irregular past participle of the verb decir. (The form decido does not exist.)

40
Q

Translate to Spanish:

I read (past tense) the words written on the piece of paper

A

Leí las palabras escritas en la hoja de papel

written - escrito (irregular past participle). Remember that past participles agree in gender and quantity with the verb that they modify. (e.g. palabras escritas, but un contrato escrito.)

41
Q

Translate to Spanish:

I like to fry eggs for breakfast

A

Me gusta freír huevos para desayuno

to fry - freír

42
Q

Translate to Spanish:

For breakfast I made fried eggs

A

Para el desayuno preparé huevos fritos

fried - frito (irregular past participle)

43
Q

Translate to Spanish:

The homework is well done

A

La tarea está bien hecha

made, done - hecho (irregular past participle)

44
Q

Translate to Spanish:

Did the machine print your name on the ticket?

A

¿Imprimió la máquina tu nombre en el boleto?

to print - imprimir

45
Q

Translate to Spanish:

Your name is printed on the ticket

A

Tu nombre está impreso en el boleto

printed - impreso (irregular past participle)

46
Q

Translate to Spanish:

He was sad because his dog had died

A

Estaba triste porque su perro se había muerto

dead, deceased - muerto (irregular past participle)

47
Q

Translate to Spanish:

I placed your books and pencils on the table

A

He puesto tus libros y lápices en la mesa

put, placed - puesto (irregular past participle)

48
Q

Translate to Spanish:

They want to resolve the problem

A

Quieren resolver el problema

to resolve - resolver

49
Q

Translate to Spanish:

The problem has been resolved

A

El problema se ha resuelto

resolved - resuelto (irregular past participle)

50
Q

Translate to Spanish:

All my pencils are broken

A

Todos mis lápices están rotos

broken - roto (irregular past participle)

51
Q

Translate to Spanish:

Does his work satisfy him?

A

¿Le satisface su trabajo?

to satisfy - satisfacer

52
Q

Translate to Spanish:

He's satisfied by the work he's doing.

A

Está satisfecho del trabajo que está haciendo.

satisfied - satisfecho

53
Q

Translate to Spanish:

I haven't seen her in a long time

A

No la he visto en mucho tiempo

seen - visto (irregular past participle)

54
Q

Translate to Spanish:

The president has returned from Europe

A

Ha vuelto el presidente desde Europa

returned from somewhere - vuelto (irregular past participle)

55
Q

Translate to Spanish:

He has already returned the book to me

A

Ya me ha devuelto el libro

returned to someone - devuelto (irregular past participle)

56
Q

What is the conditional tense in Spanish?

A

The conditional tense in Spanish generally corresponds to the English "would + (verb)" and expresses an uncertainity of the future. It is used to:

  • Root a future action in the past: "Jorge told me that he'd go out at ten" --> Jorge me dijo que saldría a las diez
  • Express hypothetical thoughts: "I would help you with your homework, but I am busy today" --> Te ayudaría con tu tarea, pero estoy ocupado hoy
  • Allow room for a probability that may include conjecture: "With whom would Marta go out so late at night?" --> ¿Con quién saldría tan tarde Marta?
  • Express a courteous request: "Would you allow me to use your car?" --> ¿Me dejaría usar su coche?
57
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I would talk but I don't want to

A

Hablaría pero no quiero

I would talk - hablaría. Note that regular -ar, -er, and -ir ending verbs are conjugated the same way in the conditional tense, with the endings simply added onto the infinitive

58
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You would run, but you broke your leg

A

Correrías, pero te rompiste la pierna

you would run - correrías

59
Q

Translate to Spanish.

José would write a book on Mexican art, but he's too busy

A

José escribiría un libro sobre el arte mexicano, pero está demasiado ocupado

he/she would write - escribiría

60
Q

Translate to Spanish.

With whom would we sing?

A

¿Con quién cantaríamos?

we would sing - cantaríamos

61
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You (vosotros) would understand, but you're not listening

A

Vostros entenderíais, pero no estais escuchando

you (vosotros) would understand - entederíais

62
Q

Translate to Spanish.

With whom would they talk to at this hour?

A

¿Con quién hablarían a esta hora?

they would talk - hablarían

63
Q

What are the conditional endings for regular -ar, -er, and -ir verbs?

A

Tiempo Condicional (-ar, -er, -ir)

  • -ía (yo)
  • -ías (tú)
  • -ía (él)
  • -íamos (nosotros)
  • -íais (vosotros)
  • -ían (ellos)
64
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Most men like sports

A

A la mayoría de los hombres les gustan los deportes

most - la mayoría de

65
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Good point

A

Buen punto

point - el punto. The word punto is also used to describe "points" in a sport or game, or to mean "period" in a sentence

66
Q

Translate to Spanish.

I will not go out with him. Period.

A

No voy a salir con él. Punto.

period - el punto

67
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Our teacher is in a coma

A

Nuestra maestra está en un coma

coma - el coma. Do not confuse this with la coma, which means "comma" (the punctuation mark)

68
Q

Translate to Spanish.

There are too many commas in your essay. You're going to have to write it over again

A

Hay demasiadas comas en tu ensayo. Vas a tener que escribirlo de nuevo

comma - la coma. Do not confuse this with el coma, which means a "coma" (i.e. a vegetative state)

69
Q

Translate to Spanish.

Most sentences end in a period

A

La mayoría de las oraciones terminan con un punto

sentence - la oración

70
Q

Translate to Spanish.

This is the end of your Spanish lesson

A

Éste es el fin de tu lección de español

end - el fin

71
Q

Translate to Spanish.

You should go to the party

A

Deberías ir a la fiesta

should - deber (in conditional tense). Note that while deber in the present tense means "must", any conjugation of deber in the conditional means "should". e.g. "We should talk" - Deberíamos hablar