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6GE03 - Water Security > 2.5 Nile > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.5 Nile Deck (19)
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What problems did many of the African countries have in the 1990s?

Alarming population growth, poverty forcing people to use marginal land, soil erosion, droughts and debt crisis.


What happened from the 1980s?

Major irrigation schemes were introduced to encourage people to grow cash crops to help boost exports to get out of debt.


What impact did these major irrigation schemes have?

The schemes lead to a huge additional demand for water.


How did the economies of Egypt and Ghana increase?

The African rivers were damned as part of large scale development projects (Aswan Dam in Egypt and Akosombo Dam in Ghana


How is the current water supply in sub-Saharan Africa?

The current water in the region is already in short supply. With the effects of climate change, the supply is likely to dwindle further.


What are the threats of water scarcity?

*Many economies in Africa are dependent on agriculture
*Millions are employed in the agricultural sector


What future challenges does Africa have in terms of water?

*Increasing the number of people with access to safe water and sanitation
*Managing and maintaining water resources


How many countries are in the basin of the Nile?

There are 10 countries- this includes Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Kenya, Zaire, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan and Egypt.


Which country has mainly benefited from the Nile and how?

Egypt has traditionally benefited from the Nile even though 85% of the river's flow stems from the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. Egypt developed irrigation farms which allowed the country to support its population of 73 million.


Why is there a possibility of tension between Egypt and Ethiopia?

Ethiopia has now emerged as a growing economy with a similar sized population to Egypt. However, the population growth rate is much higher in Ethiopia. Thus to support its population growth, Ethiopia wants to invest water into irrigation schemes which would require Ethiopia to use Egypt's water supply.


What is virtual water?

Virtual water is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product and includes the sum of the water used in the various steps of the production chain.


How does the trade in virtual water happen in Africa?

African countries are exporting their water in every crop they produce. For example, a small 50g salad bag uses up to 50l of water.


What major irrigation scheme has Egypt embarked on?

Egypt has planned to irrigate areas away from the densely populated Nile Valley- this project is known as the Toshka Project.


How much does the Toshka Project cost?

$70 billion


What is the Toshka Project a long term plan of?

A long-term plan to boost food production for Egypt's growing urban population and export


Who is funding the Toshka Project?

The project is being funded by international investment- most funding would come from loans by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.


What impact will the Toshka Project have on Cairo?

Planners claim that the project will deliver a second Egypt and support 16 million people. This will reduce the population pressure on the Nile Valley and Cairo


What are the aims of the Toshka project?

*Provide food, electricity and jobs for 16 million people whilst relocating people to farms in irrigated areas
*Transfer water from Lake Nasser into the Western Project
*Increase Egypt's irrigated area by 30%
*Create sustainable communities
*Improve infrastructure


What are the negative impacts of the Toshka Project?

*Lake Nasser is silting up so long-term water supplies may not be reliable
*Open transfer canals may fill up with sand- water evaporate in the desert heat
*Huge amounts of electricity needed for water pumps
*Project would fail if upstream countries take more water from the Nile causing water levels to fall