Flashcards in 1.5- Salt Water Incursion Deck (16)
What is salt water incursion?
the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to contamination of drinking water sources.
What is the ratio for extracting fresh water to contaminated water?
every foot of freshwater extracted, 40ft of contaminated water enters.
What happens to the surface sea water?
Evaporates into the atmosphere
what is the zone of dispersion?
interface is actually a diffuse zone in which freshwater and saltwater mix, and is referred to as the zone of dispersion
What happens in the first stage of normal conditions?
the seaward movement of freshwater prevents saltwater from encroaching coastal aquifers
What happens in the second stage of normal conditions?
interface between freshwater and saltwater is maintained near the coast or far below land surface.
What can groundwater pumping do?
reduce freshwater flow toward coastal discharge areas and cause saltwater to be drawn toward the freshwater zones of the aquifer.
What is a negative of salt water incursion?
decreases freshwater storage in the aquifers
What happens in extreme conditions?
result in the abandonment of supply wells.
What is one way mechanism that salt water incursion can occur from?
lateral encroachment from coastal waters.
What is another mechanism that salt water incursion can occur from?
vertical upconing (movement) near discharging wells.
what is vertical upconing (movement)?
Saline water flows upward through the nearly vertical structural features in response to ground-water pumping from the uppermost aquifer.
Name an area that is effected by this in the Middle East?
What implications does this have?
Already in a civil war with Israel, even more strain on resources.
One way you can solve this problem?
Injection of brine or desalinized water