Flashcards in 3.3 Deck (20)
why are there water availability issues in the UK?
There is a supply and demand mismatch where the areas needing less water receive higher rainfall than those that need the most.
What is the general rainfall pattern of the UK?
More sparsely populated areas to the North-West of the UK and in Wales receive the most rainfall, the South East of England receives the least.
What may be causing periods of drought in the UK?
El Nino and La Nina
Why does the UK's water infrastructure pose an issue?
Much of it was built in the Victorian era and so is now out of date, in need of constant maintenance and insufficient to carry the large quantities of water that need moving
Where is Kielder water?
Kielder water is in Northumberland in the North east of England
What is Kielder water?
Kielder Water is the largest man made lake in Europe. It is a 12km long reservoir that holds up to 200 billion litres of water.
When was Kielder water constructed and why?
Kielder water was completed in 1981 after it was approved by parliament in 1974. It's purpose was to supply water to what were presumed to be growing industrial centres in the north of England.
Where does Kielder water supply water to?
Water released from Kielder can supply Tyneside, Wearside and Teesside (Newcastle, Sunderland and Middlesbrough respectively)
Why is their controversy over the project?
Many saw it as a waste of money due to the decline of the heavy industries in the North that required the water. Construction also involved the deforestation of 1,500,000 trees and displaced farming communities.
When did Kielder water come into use?
In the 1990s a drought in Yorkshire was solved by buying water from Kielder to use.
What are the added benefits of the project?
It created a new tourism industry and nature reserve and therefore provided jobs in tourism and in its initial construction. It also produced HEP and can provide water to many parts of the UK if a drought does occur.
what measures are there for preserving water in the UK?
Water companies have previously put in place hosepipe bans to preserve water. imposing water metres on customers to monitor specific water usage is also an option.
Where can London get water from if there is a shortage?
The north London aquifer can be bored into by Thames Water in order to provide more water for London in the event of a drought or heatwave.
What converts water from the Thames Estuary into drinking water?
A Thames water desalination plant.
What benefits are there with large scale water projects? (1)
Large schemes have the potential to impact on a large number of people, increasing their supply security
What benefits are there with large scale water projects? (2)
They may be the only option in some locations.
What issues are there with large scale water projects? (1)
Costs are often very high, with question marks over longevity (siltation).
What issues are there with large scale water projects? (2)
There may be a ‘robbing peter to pay paul’ situation with water diversion.
What issues are there with large scale water projects? (3)
Schemes often have a wide range of social, cultural and environmental impacts