2.5 Proteins And Enzymes Flashcards Preview

AQA GCSE - Biology > 2.5 Proteins And Enzymes > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.5 Proteins And Enzymes Deck (32)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are proteins made from?

Long chain amino acids

2

How is a specific protein shape formed?

The long chains are folded

3

Why is a specific protein shape important?

It enables other molecules to fit into the protein

4

What can protein act as?

Structural components of tissue
Hormones
Antibodies
Catalysts

5

What is a catalyst?

It increases the rate of reaction

6

What is an enzyme?

A protein and a biological catalyst

7

What is different for all enzymes?

The optimum pH

8

Where are digestive enzymes produced?

Glands and lining of the gut

9

What does an enzyme do?

It catalyses the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules

10

What happens when an enzyme is denatured?

The shape of the active site (enzyme) is changed so the substrate (food molecule) is no longer complimentary

11

What are enzymes affected by?

pH
Temperature
Substrate concentration
Enzyme concentration

12

Where is amylase produced?

Salivary glands
Pancreas
Small intestine

13

What does amylase do?

Breaks starch into sugar

14

Where is protease produced?

Stomach
Pancreas
Small intestine

15

What does protease do?

Breaks protein into amino acids

16

Where is lipase produced?

Pancreas
Small intestine

17

What does lipase do?

Breaks down fats and oils into
Fatty acids and glycerol

18

What is also produced in the stomach?

Hydrochloric acid

19

What does hydrochloric acid do?

Creates the optimum pH in the stomach
Around 3

20

Where is bile produced, stored and released in?

Produced: liver
Stored: Gall bladder
Released: Small intestine

21

What does bile do?

It neutralises acid from the stomach
Provides alkaline conditions for the small intestine

22

What enzymes do biological detergents contain?

Protease
Lipase

23

How do enzymes help in biological detergents?

Lowering temperatures whilst clean clothes just as well

24

What are the disadvantages of biological detergents?

Easily denatured
Can't be reused

25

What enzyme is in baby food?

Protease

26

How do enzymes help in baby food?

Protease pre-digests food so babies can get the nutrients easier and quicker

27

What does amylase or carbohydrase convert and into what?

Starch into glucose/sugar syrup

28

What are the advantages of sugar syrup to starch?

You don't need to transport sugar from far countries
It will therefore be cheaper and better for the environment

29

What is a disadvantage of sugar syrup?

Places like Fiji will lose money as they grow a lot of sugar

30

What is used to convert glucose syrup?

Isomerase