Flashcards in 2.5 Proteins And Enzymes Deck (32)
What are proteins made from?
Long chain amino acids
How is a specific protein shape formed?
The long chains are folded
Why is a specific protein shape important?
It enables other molecules to fit into the protein
What can protein act as?
Structural components of tissue
What is a catalyst?
It increases the rate of reaction
What is an enzyme?
A protein and a biological catalyst
What is different for all enzymes?
The optimum pH
Where are digestive enzymes produced?
Glands and lining of the gut
What does an enzyme do?
It catalyses the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules
What happens when an enzyme is denatured?
The shape of the active site (enzyme) is changed so the substrate (food molecule) is no longer complimentary
What are enzymes affected by?
Where is amylase produced?
What does amylase do?
Breaks starch into sugar
Where is protease produced?
What does protease do?
Breaks protein into amino acids
Where is lipase produced?
What does lipase do?
Breaks down fats and oils into
Fatty acids and glycerol
What is also produced in the stomach?
What does hydrochloric acid do?
Creates the optimum pH in the stomach
Where is bile produced, stored and released in?
Stored: Gall bladder
Released: Small intestine
What does bile do?
It neutralises acid from the stomach
Provides alkaline conditions for the small intestine
What enzymes do biological detergents contain?
How do enzymes help in biological detergents?
Lowering temperatures whilst clean clothes just as well
What are the disadvantages of biological detergents?
Can't be reused
What enzyme is in baby food?
How do enzymes help in baby food?
Protease pre-digests food so babies can get the nutrients easier and quicker
What does amylase or carbohydrase convert and into what?
Starch into glucose/sugar syrup
What are the advantages of sugar syrup to starch?
You don't need to transport sugar from far countries
It will therefore be cheaper and better for the environment
What is a disadvantage of sugar syrup?
Places like Fiji will lose money as they grow a lot of sugar