3.1 (P1) Movement Of Molecules Flashcards Preview

AQA GCSE - Biology > 3.1 (P1) Movement Of Molecules > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.1 (P1) Movement Of Molecules Deck (31)
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1

What can dissolved substances move by?

Diffusion
Active transport

2

What does water move by?

Osmosis

3

What is diffusion?

The net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration requiring no additional energy

4

What is osmosis?

The net movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration of water to an area of low concentration of water requiring no additional energy through a partially permeable membrane

5

What happens to an animal cell in a concentrated salt solution?

It will shrivel
Water moves out to the area of lower concentration

6

What happens to an animal cell in distilled water?

It will inflate and possibly burst
Water moves in to an area of lower concentration

7

What happens to an animal cell in an isotonic solution?

Nothing
Osmosis moves in and out evenly

8

What is active transport?

The net movement of particles form an area of lower concentration to an area of high concentration requiring additional energy

9

What are taken in by active transport?

Minerals and ions are taken in by plants

10

Where is the additional energy acquired from?

Respiration

11

What else is required in active transport and why?

Ribosomes to make proteins

The proteins carry molecules across a membrane

12

What do sports drink contain?

Water
Sugar
Ions

13

What does the sugar replace in a sports drink?

Sugar used in energy released in exercise

14

What do the water and ions in the sports drink replace?

The ions and water that were lost when sweating

15

What happens is water and ions aren't replaced after exercise?

The balance of the body is disturbed
The cells don't work as efficiently

16

What are the factors affecting the effectiveness of an exchange surface?

Large surface area
Steep concentration gradient
Short diffusion distance

17

What law ties factors affecting exchange surfaces?

Fick's law:

Large surface area x Steep concentration gradient
---------------------------------
Short diffusion distance

18

How does size and complexity of an organism affect exchange of materials?

It increases the difficulty

19

What are alveoli?

Millions of tiny air sacs in the lungs

20

What factors of Fick's law tie into the alveoli?

Large surface area of the lungs increased by millions of alveoli
Short diffusion distance as capillaries are very close
Steep concentration gradient maintained by a constant blood flow

21

What happens to Carbon dioxide and oxygen in the alveoli?

Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the plasma
Oxygen diffuses into the red blood cells

22

What are villi?

Folds upon folds upon folds in the small intestine

23

What factors of Fick's law tie into the villi?

Large surface are of the small intestine is increased by villi
Short diffusion distance as they are only one cell thick
Steep concentration gradient as around them there is an extensive network of capillaries providing a constant blood flow

24

What do villi do?

Help absorb products more quickly via diffusion and active transport

25

What is the upper and lower part of you body called?

Upper: Thorax
Lower: Abdomen

26

What separates the thorax and abdomen internally?

The diaphragm

27

Why do we breathe?

To take in air
So oxygen can diffuse into the blood stream
And
Carbon dioxide can diffuse out of the blood stream into the air

28

Describe inhalation?

The diaphragm contacts and becomes flatter
The intercostal muscles contract moving the rib cage up and out
The volume of the thorax increases
The pressure of the thorax decreases
The air moves from outside to inside as pressure is higher outside moving to lower inside

29

Is inhalation active or passive?

Active

30

Describe exhalation?

The diaphragm relaxes to a dome shape
The intercostal muscles relax to move the rib cage down and in
The volume of the thorax decreases
The pressure of the thorax increases
The air moves from inside to outside as pressure is higher inside moving to lower outside