Flashcards in 3.1 (P1) Movement Of Molecules Deck (31)
What can dissolved substances move by?
What does water move by?
What is diffusion?
The net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration requiring no additional energy
What is osmosis?
The net movement of water molecules from an area of high concentration of water to an area of low concentration of water requiring no additional energy through a partially permeable membrane
What happens to an animal cell in a concentrated salt solution?
It will shrivel
Water moves out to the area of lower concentration
What happens to an animal cell in distilled water?
It will inflate and possibly burst
Water moves in to an area of lower concentration
What happens to an animal cell in an isotonic solution?
Osmosis moves in and out evenly
What is active transport?
The net movement of particles form an area of lower concentration to an area of high concentration requiring additional energy
What are taken in by active transport?
Minerals and ions are taken in by plants
Where is the additional energy acquired from?
What else is required in active transport and why?
Ribosomes to make proteins
The proteins carry molecules across a membrane
What do sports drink contain?
What does the sugar replace in a sports drink?
Sugar used in energy released in exercise
What do the water and ions in the sports drink replace?
The ions and water that were lost when sweating
What happens is water and ions aren't replaced after exercise?
The balance of the body is disturbed
The cells don't work as efficiently
What are the factors affecting the effectiveness of an exchange surface?
Large surface area
Steep concentration gradient
Short diffusion distance
What law ties factors affecting exchange surfaces?
Large surface area x Steep concentration gradient
Short diffusion distance
How does size and complexity of an organism affect exchange of materials?
It increases the difficulty
What are alveoli?
Millions of tiny air sacs in the lungs
What factors of Fick's law tie into the alveoli?
Large surface area of the lungs increased by millions of alveoli
Short diffusion distance as capillaries are very close
Steep concentration gradient maintained by a constant blood flow
What happens to Carbon dioxide and oxygen in the alveoli?
Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the plasma
Oxygen diffuses into the red blood cells
What are villi?
Folds upon folds upon folds in the small intestine
What factors of Fick's law tie into the villi?
Large surface are of the small intestine is increased by villi
Short diffusion distance as they are only one cell thick
Steep concentration gradient as around them there is an extensive network of capillaries providing a constant blood flow
What do villi do?
Help absorb products more quickly via diffusion and active transport
What is the upper and lower part of you body called?
What separates the thorax and abdomen internally?
Why do we breathe?
To take in air
So oxygen can diffuse into the blood stream
Carbon dioxide can diffuse out of the blood stream into the air
The diaphragm contacts and becomes flatter
The intercostal muscles contract moving the rib cage up and out
The volume of the thorax increases
The pressure of the thorax decreases
The air moves from outside to inside as pressure is higher outside moving to lower inside
Is inhalation active or passive?