Flashcards in 1.1 (P2) Defence Against Disease Deck (36)
What is a pathogen
Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases
What is a virus
A DEAD pathogen
It cannot survive long unless inside a host cell
How do viruses attack you
They take over the nucleus in your cells and make copies of themselves then burst out and infect other cells
They reproduce rapidly and damage the cells
What is a bacteria
An ALIVE pathogen
How do bacteria attack you
They release toxins that make you feel ill
Name three general defences
Non-specific white blood cells
Specific white blood cells
Name 2 Non-Specific white blood cells
Name natural barriers you body has
Ciliated epithelial cells
Name the specific white blood cells
What do phagocytes do
The engulf pathogens and hold up to 10,000 before dying
Where are B-cells and T-cells found
In the lymph glands
What do B-cells target?
What do T-cells target?
What do B-cells do?
They produce antibodies
The tiny proteins are sent to the infection via the blood stream
They attach themselves to the
What do T-cells do?
They multiply and go out if the gland to the infection themselves
They release antitoxins which only targets the infected cell
What can happen to T-cells?
They remain in the body in small quantities
They are called memory cells
What are memory cells vital for?
Who is Ignaz Semmelweis?
A Hungarian physician
He found the link between microbes and infection
He saw doctors didn't wash their hands between an autopsy and delivering a baby
He told them to wash their hands to prevent the spread of pathogens
What do painkillers do?
They relive the pain and symptoms
They don't kill the pathogen
What are antibiotics?
They cure bacterial infections
They are natural - you can't make them
Do antibiotics work on viruses? Why?
They reproduce inside host cells which makes it hard to target without killing the other cells also
What is the first antibiotic?
Who discovered it?
What is the term for a change in DNA causing variation?
What causes mutation?
How does antibiotic resistance occur?
How does a resistant strain form?
Antibiotics kill individual pathogens of the non-resistant strain
However, some mutate and survive and reproduce
The population of the resistant strain increases
Name a resistant strain of bacteria
What aren't antibiotics used for and why?
Mild throat infections
So the rate of resistant strains slows down
What is a vaccine?
A small dead version of the virus