Flashcards in 2b.The Churches of the East Deck (37):
One of the foremost icon painters in the 1400s. He painted "The Trinity".
Briefly describe "The Trinity".
Please print it out in color.
What is the one word that describes Orthodoxy, and why?
Mystery. Unlike the Catholic Church, which focuses on the wording of doctrine, the Orthodox church focuses on the experience of doctrine. The Catholic Church focuses on the performance of liturgy and the theology that lies behind it, but the Orthodox church emphasizes the mystery between the divine and human encounter.
Council of Chalcedon of 451
Declared Jesus fully human and fully God. Nestorius was accused of not believing that Jesus was both. Primarily because he believed that Christians in his day were too close to venerating Mary after they proclaimed her the Theotokos.
Mother of God. Nestorius did not agree fully with this.
believing that Christ had only one nature, or that the two natures come together but that his godly nature supercedes his human nature. Churches that have this theology are Oriental Orthodox Churches
Oriental Orthodox Churches
Churches that only acknowledge the first three Ecumenical Councils. They have a monophysite theology and believe that Jesus had only one nature. Basically, they reject the Council of Chalcedon that said that Jesus was fully God and fully human.
Eastern Rite Catholic Churches
Catholic Churches that are in the "territory" of the Russian Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the Catholic Church.
The pontiff of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Traditionally he was resided in Constantinople, or modern day Istanbul.
Established the idea of canonical territory for the Russian Orthodox Church. The church and state worked together, symphonia.
An idea established by Justinian. The church was responsible for moral and ethical descions and the Czar was responsible for power over life on earth.
double headed eagle
There are two readings of this symbol. The first describes it as an example of symphonia (church and state), and the second states that the eagle on the right is Rome, and the eagle on the left is Constantinople.
When did the Western and Eastern church split, and why?
The Great Schism of 1054. They excommunicated each other. Pope Leo excommunicated the Patriarch of Constantinople.
Why all the renewed interest in the Orthodox Church?
1. The fall of the Berlin Wall and the Soviet Union has made this "unreached" region open to Protestants.
2. In response, the Orthodox Church has been very vocal about the west stealing their people. The church led the way in enacting laws that would limit Protestant and foreign church involvement in the region.
When Orthodox and Catholic Churches speak of authority, what do they adhere to?
The Sacred Scriptures, and the Sacred Tradition. The Holy Tradition includes the writings of the early church fathers and the teachings of the ecumenical councils.
What is the strength of the Sacred Tradition?
It focuses on a communal interpretation of scripture and is less prone to individual interpretations.
What is the Orthodox view of theology?
It is intertwined. You can't separate theology, Christology, and Pneumatology because together they complete the Christian doctrine.
What is the differences of emphasis in western and eastern theology?
In the west we focus on the legal declaration that one has been forgiven, and in the east they focus on the need to repent.
The way of negation in Orthodox theology. You describe God for what he is not. You take things away to arrive at what is.
In Orthodox Theology, the Father is unbegotten, the Son is begotten, and the spirit proceeds from the Father and not the Son. This is not believed by the Western Church, which states in the Nicene Creed that the Spirit proceeds from the Son.
When does salvation begin in Orthodox theology?
What is Chrismation, and when does it happen?
Chrismation is the receiving of the Holy Spirit. In the Orthodox Church it happens at baptism, and in the Catholic Church during confirmation.
What is the difference between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches.
The Eastern Orthodox Churches accepted the Council of Chalcedon, and the Oriental Churches rejected it.
Or "theosis". In Orthodox theology, this is the process of becoming more like Christ, or entering into life with God. The Western Church focuses on the juridicial terms of atonement, where we sinned and Christ's death atoned for us to rectify the situation. But in Orthodox theology that process is more personal. It is entering into a full life with God.
the doorway into the eternal. A door or gate the front of an Orthodox church where only the priest can go through on behalf of the people.
doorways into the eternal. They help you meditate on who God is. In Eastern Orthodox Theology and in Protestantism, the use of statues is similar to idols. But the Orthodox Church uses icons.
The enthroned Christ that is present in Orthodox Churches. He holds a copy of the gospel in his left hand, and his right hand he holds two fingers up to signify his two natures.
Communion of Saints
The Church is composed of all believers, past and present. Death does not separate us.
Peter the Great
Russian leader who tried to destabilize Istanbul during the Ottoman Empire. He had strong ties to the West. He tried to get the Greeks in Turkey to rebel, but he didn't have the support of west European nations who didn't trust where he was coming from.
He changed the dynamic between Church and State in Russia. Basically gave himself power over the Church.
Ethiopian Orthodox Church
Part of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. They have a Jewish influence and still practice Sabbath, circumcision, and abstain from some foods.
Mar Thoma Church
The Church of India. They believe the Apostle Thomas founded the church in the 1st century. Originally Nestorian in the theology. Roman Catholicism is introduced in 1498 with the arrival of Vasco de Gama.
When did Orthodoxy enter Russia?
In 986. Vladimir visited Haggia Sophia and returned convinced that everyone should be a Christian.
Attempted to reform the Russian Orthodox Church but failed.
Essay Question: 2. Recent years have seen Orthodox leaders and Roman Catholic leaders holding conversations with one another about their differences. Some of these differences date from the 4th Century Council of Chalcedon. Others of them date from the great schism of the 11th Century. Based upon the lecture and your readings, outline the major differences between the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches.
Oriental Orthodox Church:
-Rejected Council of Chalcedon, which stated that Jesu was fully human and fully God. They only accept the decisions of the first three councils.
-most likely reject Theotokos
-therefore it is more menophysite in its theology
-Ethiopian Church, which is traditionally more Jewish.
-Malankara Syrian Church
-Armenian Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church: Accepted the Council of Chalcedon.
-Rejected Vatican I
Essay Question: 3. Outline and describe the major differences between the Orthodox Churches and the Roman Catholic Church.
-Mystery. In terms of Liturgy, they focus on the mystery of the interaction between God and humans.
-Historically, located in the East (Constantinople).
-focus is on the need for one to repent.
-icons, not statues
-Reject Vatican I.
-Christmation at baptism
-reject Immaculate Conception
In Liturgy, they focus more on the theology that is represented in the Liturgy.
-Focus is on the juridicial part of atonement, in other words, the need to declare one as being forgiven.
-statues are ok
-Accepted Vatican I
-Chrismation at confirmation
-Accept Immaculate Conception