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When did colonialism reach its zenith?

In 1914, right before WWI.


What spurred colonialism?

Rapid economic growth, driven by power, economic opportunity people had never seen, and new social ideas.


Who were the first Europeans to colonize the African continent?

the Portuguese. They focused on trade. Vasco de Gama sailed around the tip of South Africa. Before this, the Chinese were on the West coast, with 2000 ships.


Why didn't the Europeans colonize the northern coast of Africa?

It was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. Good luck, suckas.


Who eventually had the strongest grasp on the African continent?

The British. They had the most forts, the most ships, and the most knowledge and concern about Africa. For economic reasons, of course.


Where were the forts located?

Along the coast, so that they could bring slaves into their ships and take them away. They would venture inland and bribe tribes to betray other tribes.


Who had an edge on opening up the Asian continent?

The Portuguese. Vasco de Gama sailed the Indian Ocean.


Why were the Portuguese looking for a way to India over waters?

They wanted to cut the middle man, and it was cheaper to sail, and less dangerous. Those trips eventually led them to the Pacific as early as the 1500s.


Who followed the Portuguese?

The Dutch, and then the British.


Who had the strongest presence in the Pacific?

The Spaniards. They got to Mexico, and then went to the Philippines.


Where did the British go?

New England, of course. Australia, India, and New Zealand. They brought Western Civilization to these regions.


Pax Britannica

Brittish Peace. Like Roman peace. They set up roads for transportation, education, medical advances, telegraph lines, a postal service. They fought famine and disease, and ended domestic wars.


Where did the Spaniards go?

Florida, the Gulf Coast, the Caribbean, Mexico, Central and South American and the Southwest in general.


Who provided the work for Spain's colonies in the New World?

African slaves. They natives got sick with their diseases.


How far did the missions movement in the Americas go?

Down to Chile, and up to Sonoma.


What was the purpose of the missions?

1. Establish a Christian witness in the region. 2. Establish a Spanish political presence.


Where did they establish missions?

1. near water and 2. in places with good soil where they could grow crops.


When were the missions "secularized"?

In 1834, by the Mexican president.



Gathering of lay leaders without the clergy that organized. Locally led juntas eventually led to the War for Spanish Independence. They remind me of Norwegian conventicals.



In Latin America, during the time that the church was losing power because of the separation of church and state, priests left their positions, or were forced out.


Besides the Spaniards, who else colonized the area in Northern California?

The Russians. The built Fort Ross, but eventually sold it. They were mostly fur trappers and lumbermen of Orthodox faith.


What is American colonialism called?

Manifest Destiny


What was the religious make up of the colonies?

It was a Protestant Calvinist understanding of theology with a strong work ethic. Most often reformed. They had been affected by the First Great Awakening of Jonathan Edwards.

There were denominational lines, but people moved freely and there was no real beef.


What were some of the positive effects of colonialism?

1. The gospel was spread.
2. churches were planted.
3. schools and medical facilities were built
4. people learned to read, the bible was translated into different languages.
5. It challenged traditional practices, food binding in China, genital mutilation in Africa, the burning of brides and racism in India.
6. it established democracy and judicial systems


Essay Question: 1. Colonialism is a multifaceted phenomenon that took place in great part during the 17th through the 19th Centuries. It was dominated by a handful of European nations that had the resources, the motivation, and the opportunity to spread their influence around the world. As you have looked at colonialism within the region that you have chosen to study in more depth (Latin America, or Asia, or Africa) what do you consider colonialism’s three most consistent characteristics. How would you describe its contributions and its liabilities within that region?

need to look at the readings


Essay Question: 3. Based upon what you have read in your texts and the material available in this lecture, compare and/or contrast the processes involved in the colonialization of Asia and Latin America.

Portuguese at first. Brought Catholicism. But then got kicked out of China. They wanted to trade, and so did the Dutch.
The Brittish brought pax Britannica to India.

Latin America:
Spanish wanted gold. Missions movement. They brought government and politics. The encomiendas sucked. They brought slaves from Africa.