Flashcards in 4a. The Battle Over Slavery Deck (38):
As people who've never grown up with slavery like the one we had for 150 years of our history, what do WE fail to grasp.
We fail to understand that slavery was powerful because it contributed so much to the economic interest of those who profited. We see the human story, but they saw profit.
What does the book of Daniel reach us about how masters use slavery as a social control mechanism?
1. He separated them from their families.
2. He changed their names.
3. He attempted to change their culture by making them read Babylonian literature.
4. He forced them to lean a new language.
5. He attempted to change their diet to keep the new culture.
6. He ordered them to change their religion and bow down to an idol.
To be free in America is what?
It is the opposite of slavery. Free to do everything and anything you want. This is a U.S. understanding of freedom and slavery that has been ingrained in us because of our history. Not every culture sees slavery (or freedom) the same way.
What role did each continent play in the slave trade?
-Europe traded and sold them.
-Africa was the source, but we can't totally blame the Europeans because some Africans betrayed their own people.
-America bought and exploited them. And when Europe stopped sending them, we bred them.
Where did the bulk of slaves come from?
Why did the Spanish get African slaves instead of Indigenous ones?
Because Native Americans died too easily from diseases. They needed cheap labor, so they got it from Africa.
Who were some of the first to engage in the slave trade?
The Portuguese and the Dutch. They began getting Africans and taking them to the Caribbean. The Portuguese took them to Brazil for sugar production.
What was one of the implications of the Dutch taking sugar production from the Portuguese?
It motivated England and France to do the same in the Caribbean.
What prompted more slaves being taken to Brazil.
The discovery of gold in the 18th century.
How many slaves were in the United States?
50,000 in 1700, 1 million in 1800. So 20% of the population at the beginning of the 19th century.
When was the international slave trade abolished?
1808, at the height of American slavery. But it had no impact on the United States, because we just bred more.
In 1800, what percentage of clergy owned slaves?
Baptist pastor who believed that slavery was for the greater good of society. But he was not alone in his thinking. Many pastors served on slave patrols to look for runaways.
What were the three main crops in the U.S.?
Sugar, tobacco and cotton.
What was the relationship between America and Europe in the benefits of the slave trade?
America produced the cotton, and Europe had the textile mills.
Where was the cotton being produced?
In the deep south, places like Mississippi and Georgia where slaves outnumbered whites 40:1. Cotton production increased dramatically from 1830 to 1859, and so did the number of slaves.
Why didn't anyone say anything against slavery?
Because so many people owned them. And because the slaves were making them rich.
Cotton was king, a huge cash crop, and there was no stopping it. Morality took a back seat to sound economic policy.
Who was William Pitt?
The Prime Minister of England in 1783 who estimate that 80% of foreign income was related to the slave trade.
In the United States, who were the first to say something against slavery?
The Quakers, Methodist and Baptists in Virginia.
Condemned slavery because it was not needed in the Age of Reason. He attacked slavery from a philosophical point of view.
Which Pope ended slavery?
Pope Clement XI (1649-1721), he told the Spanish and Portuguese to knock it off, and they did.
Slave who was sold to a Quaker in the Caribbean. Master set him free, and Equiano wrote about the horrors of the trade.
those who fought to end the slave trade in England, it happened in 1807.
those who fought to liberate those who were already in slavery
Who led the charge to end slavery in England?
William Wilberforce. He was an Anglican layman who was elected to parliament.
Who else joined Wilberforce in parliament to fight for emancipation?
Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton.
When was the slave trade abolished worldwide?
What influenced the abolitionist movement in the United States?
The Second Great Awakening. Christians immersed themselves in social issues. Before this, Christians talked about personal sin, but never talked about society.
Who was a champion of abolition in the north?
William Garrison. He wrote for a magazine called "Liberator". He was very aggressive towards slavery, and didn't back down. The magazine allowed anti-slavery organizations to communicate and get together.
Arthur and Lewis Tappan
Two brothers who funded anti-slavery organizations. They founded the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Organized through the American Anti-Slavery Society, and went to Lane Theological Seminary where he led an 18 day protest and discussion against slavery. The Board of Trustees put an end to it, so he an his friends went to Oberlin College.
Oberlin College became the first college to admit African American students. It led the abolitionists movement. Charles Finney and Theodore Weld were students there.
First Martyr in America. Presbyterian pastor who was killed in the north, his death solidified the abolition movement.
Which churches split because of the abolition movement? Which ones didn't?
Those who split were:
Methodists, Presbyterians, and Baptist. Lutherans and Episcopalians.
The Catholic Church did not split.
Essay Question: 1. Slavery has been with the human race for millennia. Within the Modern period, however, it has been best exemplified by the European and American (including North, Central, South, and the Caribbean) interactions with the African continent. Based upon this lecture and your readings, outline a brief history of the development of slavery within this region of the world. Be sure to note important persons and/or events that led to the development of African slavery worldwide.
-Talk about the interaction between the three continents.
-Cotton in the United States. Talk about the deep south, and the stats.
-Why did no one challenge it?
-What were Christians doing?
Essay Question: 2. The work that was done on the issue of Abolition, first to end the slave trade, then to emancipate slaves that were already in bondage was an important work aided and abetted by Evangelicals in Britain and in the United States. Write an essay that takes seriously the information given in this lecture and your readings regarding the role of Christians in bringing about this important work of Abolition. Be sure to note important persons and/or events that led to the end of African slavery worldwide.
do more tomorrow
Essay Question: 3. What are the three most significant pastoral implications you see in the discussion on slavery and abolition that would help you to address a contemporary moral/ethical issue in the Church? Tell why this is the case and be prepared to give an example to justify your reasons.
-morality over economics, you can use the prophets here
-as Christians, we follow the gospel first, challenging the status quo
-faith should lead to social engagement, think about the Second Great Awakening.
-the church, when it works together, can bring about real change