Flashcards in 1b. Setting the Stage Deck (29):
Cuius regio, eius religio
Who's rule, his religion. The religion of the prince. In post-reformation Europe the various political leaders would force the countries they were leading to follow whatever form of Christianity the leader believed in. This was a rejection of Rome. But, don't forget that there were also monetary reasons for not being Catholic.
Cyril and Methodius
Missionaries who brought Christianity to the Slavic peoples. They were Orthodox. The Orthodox rejected the Reformation.
Don Juan de Onate
Established the first church in San Juan de Caballeros in New Mexico in 1598. By 1623 they had formed a Diocese. 80,000 Indian Christians and 43 churches.
Le Code Noir
The Black Code. The French government told their people in Louisiana and the Caribean that they had 8 days to convert their black slaves, otherwise their property would be confiscated. This is evidence that the Catholic church was focused on evangelism.
Persian leader who was sympathetic to Christianity. When he died Christians were no longer protected in China. It wasn't until the arrival of Vasco de Gama in the 16th century that Christianity returned.
Briefly describe the "Pre-Modern" world.
The Enlightenment had not happened yet, so there was no scientific methods, and philosophy had not been rediscovered. This all changed when the Portuguese figured out a way to sail around the tip of south African, and then across the Pacific. They began to interact with different peoples, especially Muslims who had preserved philosophy of Plato and the Greeks. The world expanded, and people began to ask questions.
There were no televisions, maps weren't complete, there was no electricity. The world was a huge unknown, and people didn't have the tools to explain it.
In what year did the church split? Why?
1054, AKA the Great Schism. It happened because Rome did not want to grant the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" to the Eastern leader in Constantinople. He refused and excommunicated the delegation, and they excommunicated him in return.
Draw a brief timeline of the churches that were present at the end of the 16th century.
NT church, then the East and West Church, and then the churches of the Reformation.
What happened first, Columbus, or the Portuguese sailing around south Africa?
Columbus. The Portuguese followed.
What were the Spanish interested in? What were the Portuguese interested in? What impact did this have on the world?
Treasure for the Spaniards, and Trade for the Portuguese. The Portuguese were looking to become the economic giants of the European world.
On a map, draw the places and routes that the Spanish, Portuguese, Danish, French and English focused on.
Use a blank map, or my white board to explain this.
What areas of the United States and the Americas did the Spaniards focus on?
Florida, Caribbean, Mexico, south and central America, and then southwest of U.S.
How many missions are there in California, and when were they established?
21 missions total. San Diego in 1769, and Sonoma 1823.
When did the Puritans come to the United States?
In the early 1600s. They were running away from religious persecution in Europe. This affected the way they saw the interaction between the church and state.
What was the last place to be Europeanized?
The Pacific Northwest, by the Russians. They established Fort Ross, as far south as San Francisco. They sold it and left the west coast.
How did Christianity first arrive in China?
Overland, through trade routes. Lots of early Nestorianist influence that came through Iran.
Who was Nestorius?
He was the Archbishop of Constantinople who rejected the Theotokos. Many accused him of not believing that Jesus was God as a result. Some of the churches in the East still acknowledged his authority and never agreed with the accusations.
What happened at the Council of Chalcedon in 451?
The church declared the two natures of Christ; fully God, and fully human.
Where was Nestorianism common?
in some of the churches of the east
What is Theotokos?
Mother of God. Nestorius didn't like the concept because he thought that Christians were coming too close to venerating Mary.
What were the two major cities in African, and who were they influenced by?
Carthage and Alexandria. Carthage was influenced by the West, so it was Roman Catholic. Alexandria was Greek, so it was influenced by Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Portuguese explored the west part of Africa, but who explored the East side?
The Chinese. In the early 1400s they had an armada of 2000 ships. Their largest ship was 400 feet long and 160 feet wide. But leadership changed in China to an emperor who was focusing more on agriculture, so they left the Indian Ocean. Once this happened, the Europeans moved in.
Which countries were Lutheran?
Germany, Scandinavia, and then Iceland and Greenland.
Which countries were Reformed?
Which countries were Catholic
Spain, France, Portugal
Which country was Anglican?
Who were the leaders of Spain during the times of Columbus?
Ferdinand II and Isabella. Isabella was a huge supporter of the Inquisition. Once they had rid Jews and Muslims from the Iberian peninsula they moved to the conversion of the Americas.
Essay Question: For many people in the Americas, the year 1492 holds considerable significance. For some it emerges as a moment of great “discovery,” the year in which Christopher Columbus “discovered” America - or at least, certain Caribbean islands. It is viewed as a positive outcome of exploration. For others it is the year in which the exploitation and oppression of indigenous peoples began. Native Americans were enslaved, murdered, exposed to various plagues, and robbed. Based upon your reading, in what ways can/should these claims be reconciled?
Its a mixed bag, obviously.
Missions movement had a lot of negative consequences.
Slaves were brought from Africa. Indians were too susceptible to disease.
Whole histories were destroyed: like what happened with the Aztec codices. We will never recover that.
Advances in medicine.