5a. The Churches of Europe 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5a. The Churches of Europe 1 Deck (21):
1

concordat

An agreement with the papacy that would guarantee both the needs of the Vatican and the desires of the government. Agreements with the papal office that make the church an official establishment.

2

Conventical

Meetings that allowed lay preaching in Lutheran Norwegian Church. Happened during a Pietist revival led by Hauge. Anticlericalism allowed. It was akin to a parachurch missions movement.

3

Critique of Pure Reason

Kant, Immanuel. God is unknowable, so you can't prove he exists. Objective reality can only come through what the mind can experience. What is knowable must come only through what is experienced, tangible phenomena. That which lies beyond that experience cannot be proved. Therefore, the existence of God cannot be proved.

4

Hegelian Dialectic

Hegel. A philosophical concept where one reality (thesis) meets another reality (anti-thesis) to make a new reality.

5

Either/Or

Kirkegaard. Questioned Christian conversion through baby baptism. Argued that if the child didn't know about the baptism, baptism didn't save them.

6

Engels, Friedrich

Das Kapital. He was a friend of Marx that finished the last two volumes after Marx died.

7

Hegel, G.W.F

Developed the Hegelian Dialectic, where one reality (thesis) meets another reality (antithesis) to make a new reality.

8

Hauge, Hans N.

Led a Pietist revival in the Lutheran Norwegian Church. Conventicles were common in this revival.

9

Kant, Immanuel

Critique of Pure Reason. Objective reality can only come through what the mind can experience. What is knowable must come only through what is experienced, tangible phenomena. That which lies beyond that experience cannot be proved. Therefore, the existence of God cannot be proved.

10

Kierkegaard, Soren

Either/Or. Questioned Christian conversion through baby baptism. Argued that if the child didn't know about the baptism, baptism didn't save them. 122. Wrote against the "Romantic" German philosophers.

11

Marx, Karl

The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Applied Hegels Dialectic to social theory and came up with socialism. Marx's vision can be seen as evolutionary, with the struggle being the means by which progress is made.

12

Origin of the Species

Darwin, Charles. Argued for Natural Selection. The idea of social darwinism, or survival of the fittest, began to affect everything from philosophy, to science, to politics.

13

Pennefather, William

Anglican who founded the "Mildway Conference" to promote personal holiness and service to the Lord. 127

14

Pietism

A movement within Lutherism that was started by Jakob Spener.

15

Ritschl, Albrecht

Founding father of the Social Gospel. Stressed a moral ethical life, and thought a lot about the Church and the Kingdom of God. 124.

According to this system, faith was understood to be irreducible to other experiences, beyond the scope of reason. Faith, he said, came not from facts but from value judgments.

16

Schleiermacher, Friedrich

"The Christian Faith". Argued that religion was a "feeling". He was a Romantic German philosopher. Those who practiced pure reason thought his arguments were too subjective.

17

Spener, Philip

"Pia Desideria", that brought Protestants into missions. Also believed seminarians should have a personal experience with Jesus, and not just know information. To me it sounds like a direct assault on Kant's argument that good lies outside what is knowable.

18

Wellhausen, Julius

Used Social Darwinism to argue the development of scripture. He said that the Pentetauch was not written by Moses.

19

Wesley, John

"Founder" of the methodists, but he was Anglican. Studied at Oxford, where he had a "Holy Club". He argued for scripture study, fasting and spiritual disciplines, and personal holiness. Also said that Christians could be perfectly holy. Like Philip Spener, he also stressed a personal experience with Jesus and didn't focus on dogmas or creeds. Again, are these guys challenging Kant?

20

"Leben Jesu"

Written by David Strauss. Argued for the historical evidence found in the bible. His work set the stage for the various Jesus "quests".

21

Essay Question: 3. Within Protestantism, there were at least two major responses to the emergence of “modernity.” One was to embrace it; another was to reject it. There were those, however, who responded to “modernity” and its claims by seeking God. They would claim that their quest brought “revival” or “renewal.” Write an essay in which you look at this second type of Protestant response to the emergence of “modernity.” In what ways is it a tacit acceptance of “modernity?” In what ways is it a rejection of “modernity?” How would you evaluate the value of this response, and why do you take that position?

Be able to verbalize this.

1. Talk about Kant, Hegel, and Darwin, and what they believed. This provides the contrast. Talk about how the 19th century was a time when people's faith was challenge. You can also talk about the Reformation, and the 30 years war, and how these had an impact on the European psyche. People couldn't trust the church.

Those who embraced modernity:
-Schleiermacher. There is no such thing as an objective reality God, only what we know of Him in relation to ourselves and our dependance on him.
-Hegel. Religion was at first natural, then moral, and now spiritual. Christianity and other religions could be deciphered with philosophy.
-Albrecht Ritschl. Stressed to moral and ethical life. Social Gospel.
-Strauss. Focused on Leben Jesu. The life of Jesus. Started the Jesus "quests".
-Julius Wellhausen. Applied evolutionary theory to scripture study and concluded that Moses didn't write the Pentateuch.

2. How did people respond?

Pietism, Holiness and Keswick Movements

-Philip Spener. Seminarians need to have an experience of Jesus, not just information.
-August Francke. Seminarians needed to be right with God. Emphasis, like Spener's, was on personal holiness. Why? Because you had all these other guys saying and doing crazy things!
Hauge and Conventicles. Hauge led a Pietism movement in Lutheran Norway. They allowed lay leaders to preach. Anti-clericalism was present. Maybe because the spirit was moving, maybe because people didn't trust the theologians of the day. Either way, those people started parachurch movements with a huge emphasis on missions.
John Wesley-his "methods". Personal Holiness. Pietist and Weley focused on experience with Jesus, not just creeds, dogmas and information.

It wasn't a complete rejection of Enlightenment. They acknowledged that knowledge was important, but they were stressing a relationship, personally, with Jesus. You can know all that stuff, but if you don't have relationship and experience with Jesus, then who cares? I wonder if that's why Pentecostalism becomes so prevalent?