2nd line of defense: inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd line of defense: inflammation Deck (29):
1

what is inflammation

body's basic response to tissue injury

2

inflammation is characterized by

swelling
heat
pain
loss of fn in affected organ/tissue
redness

3

initiating stimuli

infection, physical trauma, radiation exposure, chemicals/allergens, necrosis, foregin particle, neoplasm

4

what is neoplasm

abnormal growth of tissue forms a mass (tumour)

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production of mediators will cause what

vasoactive axns and acute and chronic chemotactic actions

6

name chemical mediators with vasoactive effects

histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, prostaglandins

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name mediators with both vasoactive and chemotactic effects

complement components, cytokines such as interferon and IL, platelet activators, products of arachidonic acid metabolism

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name chemical mediators with chemotactic effects

fibrin, collagen, mast cell chemotactic factors, bacterial peptides or PAMPS

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name vasoactive actions

vasodilation, increase permeability of capillaries and veins, stimulation of nerves; pain, vasoconstriction, edema

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chemotactic axns

cells migrate to site of damage

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fn of neutrohpiles

major phagocytes. stimulate monocytes and macrophages

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fn of platelets

release mediators

13

fn of macrophages

major phagocytes and support for immune rxn. found in tissues

14

fn of lymphocytes

are NK, B and T cells. respond specifically to pathogens

15

what are inflammatory/ proinflammatory mediators

chemical messenger that initiate and promote inflammation (vasoactive and chemotactic)

16

define vasoactive

increase blood flow to affected area by increasing permeability

17

eg of vasoactive

histamine (granules inside mast cells and basophils)

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define chemotactic

directs migration of leukocytes to affected area

19

two types of vasoactive mediators

pre formed (histamine)
newly synthesized following tissue injury (prostaglandins and leukotrienes)

20

what can inhibit arachidonic acid

steroidal based anti-inflammatory drugs eg corticosteroid

21

what is arachidonic acid

type of phospholipid

22

how is arachidonic acid released

released from cell due to phospholipase A2

23

two pathways that subject Arachidonic acid to metabolism

cyclo-oxygenase pathway (ihibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatroy NSAIDs eg aspirin) and lipogenase pathway

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cyclo-oxygenase pathway results in

prostaglandins

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lipo-oxygenase pathway results in

leukotrienes

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1. pavementing or margination

WBC under influence of vasoactive mediators produce greater # of ICAMS to allow attachment of blood endothelium

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what is ICAm

intercellular adhesion molecules

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2. Diapedesis/emigration

small junctions open btwn neighboring cells allow passage of WBC and serum proteins from blood into tissue

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3. chemotaxis

emigrated WBC move toward site of infection due to [gradient] of chemotactic agents