2nd Semester Final Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2nd Semester Final Deck (69):
1

List functions of the limbic system

Basic emotions; 1.) Pleasure, plain, anger, fear..
2.) involuntary aspects of survival

2

The structure that acts as a bridge connecting the spinal cord and medulla to upper portions of the brain

Pons

3

The medulla serves as a conduction pathway for all ascending and descending tracts. What type of impulses are transmitted by its white matter?

Motor and sensory

4

Brain center that regulates the heart and diameter of blood vessels

Cardiovascular

5

Movement of your left hand is initiated by motor neurons that originate in the _______ side of your cerebrum.

Right

6

The outermost layer of the cerebrum

Cortex

7

The outermost layer of the cerebrum is composed of _______ matter

Gray

8

Name some functions of the hypothalamus

1.) smell
2.) Controls nervous system
3.) controls pituitary

9

What type of sensory organs are the gustatory organs

Taste

10

Name the 5 primary taste sensations

Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, Unami

11

What is lacking in the blind spot so it has no vision capability

Rods and cones

12

The thin transparent mucous membrane covering the anterior of the eye and lining the eyelids

Conjunctiva

13

The process that adjusts the lens for near vision

Accommodation

14

The colored part of the eye

Iris

15

What receptors work to allow colored vision

3 kinds of cones

16

The equilibrium apparatus concerned with maintaining posture

Maculae of vestibule

17

The structure(s) for dynamic(motion) equilibrium

Semicircular canal

18

The ear structure that converts sound waves into vibrations

Tympanic membrane

19

A disorder caused by fusion of the bones of the middle ear

Conduction deafness

20

A constant ringing in the ears

Tinnitus

21

The structure that help equalize air pressure on the tympanic membrane

Eustachian tube

22

Type of impulses relayed and interpreted by the thalamus

Sensory and motor

23

Name some materials that blood carries

Oxygen
Water
Heat
Hormones

24

List 3 functions of the blood

Transportation
Protection
Regulation

25

Blood is approximately what percent plasma

55%

26

Plasma is composed of about what percent water

91.5%

27

The process of ingesting and destroying bacterial cells

Phagocytosis

28

About how many RBC's does the average person have per ml of blood

4.8 - 5.4 million

29

The blood type gene that is inherited as recessive

O

30

Universal donors have blood that is this type

O

31

A universal recipient is this blood type

AB

32

The antigen protein present on the red blood cell membrane determines this

Blood types

33

No one with type B blood can also have these antibodies

Anti-B

34

Venous blood (without oxygen) from the body returns to this chamber

Right atrium

35

Cardiac muscle is known as

Myocardium

36

Chamber with the thickest wall of the heart

Left ventricle

37

Explain the concentration of the chambers in the cardiac cycle

Atria contract
Ventricle contract
All relax

38

What causes heart murmurs

Improperly closing valves

39

The term describing heart chamber contraction is

Systole

40

Pulmonary circulation goes from the ____________ to the __________

Right atrium
Left ventricle

41

Which circulatory path carries blood rich in substances absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract

Hepatic portal

42

When the left ventricle contracts what term is given to the pressure in the arteries that is generated

Systolic

43

Vessels that exchange food and waste between blood and tissues

Capillaries

44

Known as exchange vessels

Capillaries

45

The backward flow of fluid in veins and lymphatics is prevented by

Valves

46

The most important function of the circulatory system is to ____ materials to and from all cells

Transport

47

Venous blood returns to the heart due to _____ movements and skeletal muscular contraction

Breathing

48

Blood typically flows from the heart first to ____, then to ___, then to _____.

Arteries
Capillaries
Veins

49

The force in which blood pushes against arterial walls during ventricular contraction is called ______ blood pressure.

Systolic

50

Structurally, lymphatic vessels most resemble these vessels of the body

Veins

51

The exchange of materials between fetal and maternal circulation occurs through this structure

Placenta

52

In an overweight person, the factor most likely to increase systemic vessels resistance.

Vessel length

53

A foreign substance that provokes an immune response in the body

Antigen

54

List some functions of the lymphatic system

Drain interstitial fluid, transport lipids from the gastro intestinal tract to the blood

55

All lymph in the body is eventually returned to the blood in this vessel

Subclavian vein

56

Why are lymph nodes important

Filter lymph
&
Store lymphocytes

57

In general what vessel can we see through our skin

Veins

58

Where are damaged and worn out red blood cells destroyed

Spleen

59

The most important function of the large intestine

Absorb water

60

Bile and pancreatic fluid act upon foods here

Small intestine

61

Place of greatest digestive activity

Small intestine

62

Structure that stores bile from the liver

Gall bladder

63

Absorption of digested food occurs largely in this organ

Small intestine

64

Breaking down food molecules to a size which is easily absorbed

Digestion

65

Bile is essential in the digestion of this nutrient

Lipids

66

The end product that come from the digestion of fats

Fatty acids and glycerol

67

The digestion involves mastication of food by teeth and churning of food by the stomach and small intestine

Mechanical

68

Substance that keeps the mouth and pharynx moist, begins the chemical breakdown of food and has ducts as its means of transport

Saliva

69

Immature red blood cells

Reticulocytes