3: Concepts in malignant haematology Flashcards Preview

Haematology Week 3 2018/19 > 3: Concepts in malignant haematology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3: Concepts in malignant haematology Deck (41)
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1

How are

a) lymphoid

b) non-lymphoid white cells identified?

a) Immunophenotyping

b) Morphology

2

How are progenitor blood cells identified?

Immunophenotyping

3

What occurs in malignant haemopoiesis?

Increased numbers of dysfunctional cells

Loss of normal activity

4

What problems occur in acute leukaemia?

Proliferation of ABNORMAL PROGENITOR CELLS

which DON'T DIFFERENTIATE OR MATURE

5

Which two processes fail to occur in acute leukaemia?

Differentiation

Maturation

6

What is the difference between acute leukaemia and chronic myeloproliferative disorders?

Acute leukaemia - proliferation of progenitor cells, NO DIFFERENTIATION OR MATURATION

Chronic myeloproliferative disorder - proliferation of progenitor cells, continued differentiation and maturation

7

What is a clone?

Population of cells derived from a single parent cell

8

clone will have the same genetic ___ as its parent cell.

markers

9

How is normal haemopoiesis described in terms of clones?

Polyclonal

Blood cells come from a variety of parent cells

10

How is malignant haemopoiesis described in terms of clones?

Monoclonal

Cells derived from one abnormal parent cell

11

Malignant haemopoiesis has a strong __ component.

genetic component

12

What are the two lineages of haematological malignancy?

Myeloid

Lymphoblastic

13

What are malignant blood cancers called when the

a) blood

b) lymph nodes are involved?

a) Leukaemia

b) Lymphoma

14

What is myeloma?

Plasma cell malignancy IN the bone marrow

unfortunate naming not to be confused with myeloid leukaemias

15

Acute leukaemias tend not to involve the ___ ___.

lymph nodes

16

Chronic lymphoid leukaemias affect the ___ and ___ ___.

blood

bone marrow

but otherwise leukaemia means blood and lymphoma means lymph nodes

17

Acute leukaemia causes the ___ ___ to fail.

bone marrow failure

because differentiation and maturation stop dead

18

Describe the speed of onset of acute and chronic haematological malignancies.

Acute leukaemia - quick onset

Chronic - onset over weeks to months

19

Which cells are affected in

a) myeloid malignancy

b) lymphoblastic malignancy

c) myeloma?

a) Non-lymphoid cells and their progenitors

b) Lymphoid cells and their progenitors

c) Plasma cells

20

Which type of blood cancer is aggressive and rapidly progressing?

Acute leukaemia

21

Acute leukaemia causes a LOSS OF HAEMOPOIETIC RESERVE.

Which investigation gives this away?

FBC

low platelets, white cells and RBCs

22

Which malignancy affects primitive lymphoid cells?

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

23

What is the most common childhood cancer?

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)

24

What are the signs and symptoms of bone marrow failure caused by acute leukaemia?

Anaemic symptoms (fatigue, pallor, SOB, syncope, palpitations)

Abnormal bleeding

Increased infection risk

25

What is unique about the presentation of ALL?

Involvement of CNS, gonads i.e structures outwith the bone marrow

26

Which acute blood malignancy primarily affects

a) children

b) adults?

a) Acute lymphoid leukaemia

b) Acute myeloid leukaemia

27

Which coagulation problem is associated with acute myeloid leukaemia?

DIC

28

How is acute leukaemia investigated?

Full blood count

Blood film

Coagulation screen (PT, APTT)

Bone marrow aspirate

29

What do primitive progenitor cells look like on a blood film?

High nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio

Dodgy looking

30

What is a blood film finding specific to AML?

Auer rods