b) non-lymphoid white cells identified?
How are progenitor blood cells identified?
What occurs in malignant haemopoiesis?
Increased numbers of dysfunctional cells
Loss of normal activity
What problems occur in acute leukaemia?
Proliferation of ABNORMAL PROGENITOR CELLS
which DON'T DIFFERENTIATE OR MATURE
Which two processes fail to occur in acute leukaemia?
What is the difference between acute leukaemia and chronic myeloproliferative disorders?
Acute leukaemia - proliferation of progenitor cells, NO DIFFERENTIATION OR MATURATION
Chronic myeloproliferative disorder - proliferation of progenitor cells, continued differentiation and maturation
What is a clone?
Population of cells derived from a single parent cell
A clone will have the same genetic ___ as its parent cell.
How is normal haemopoiesis described in terms of clones?
Blood cells come from a variety of parent cells
How is malignant haemopoiesis described in terms of clones?
Cells derived from one abnormal parent cell
Malignant haemopoiesis has a strong __ component.
What are the two lineages of haematological malignancy?
What are malignant blood cancers called when the
b) lymph nodes are involved?
What is myeloma?
Plasma cell malignancy IN the bone marrow
unfortunate naming not to be confused with myeloid leukaemias
Acute leukaemias tend not to involve the ___ ___.
Chronic lymphoid leukaemias affect the ___ and ___ ___.
but otherwise leukaemia means blood and lymphoma means lymph nodes
Acute leukaemia causes the ___ ___ to fail.
bone marrow failure
because differentiation and maturation stop dead
Describe the speed of onset of acute and chronic haematological malignancies.
Acute leukaemia - quick onset
Chronic - onset over weeks to months
Which cells are affected in
a) myeloid malignancy
b) lymphoblastic malignancy
a) Non-lymphoid cells and their progenitors
b) Lymphoid cells and their progenitors
c) Plasma cells
Which type of blood cancer is aggressive and rapidly progressing?
Acute leukaemia causes a LOSS OF HAEMOPOIETIC RESERVE.
Which investigation gives this away?
low platelets, white cells and RBCs
Which malignancy affects primitive lymphoid cells?
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
What is the most common childhood cancer?
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)
What are the signs and symptoms of bone marrow failure caused by acute leukaemia?
Anaemic symptoms (fatigue, pallor, SOB, syncope, palpitations)
Increased infection risk
What is unique about the presentation of ALL?
Involvement of CNS, gonads i.e structures outwith the bone marrow
Which acute blood malignancy primarily affects
a) Acute lymphoid leukaemia
b) Acute myeloid leukaemia
Which coagulation problem is associated with acute myeloid leukaemia?
How is acute leukaemia investigated?
Full blood count
Coagulation screen (PT, APTT)
Bone marrow aspirate
What do primitive progenitor cells look like on a blood film?
High nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio
What is a blood film finding specific to AML?