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Haematology Week 3 2018/19 > Formative assessment > Flashcards

Flashcards in Formative assessment Deck (37)
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1

A blood film contains macrovalocytes and hypersegmented neutrophils.

Which type of anaemia is these buzzwords referring to?

What is the cause?

Megaloblastic anaemia (a type of macrocytic anaemia)

Vitamin B12 / Folate deficiency

2

Which autoimmune disease can cause B12 / Folate malabsorption?

Pernicious anaemia

3

What are two blood film buzzwords for B12 / Folate deficiency?

Macrovalocytes

Hypersegmented neutrophils

4

What is a blood film finding specific to acute myeloid leukaemia?

Auer rods

5

A patient's blood film contains Auer rods.

Which haematological malignancy is this referring to?

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)

Remember CML has its own buzzwords: Philadelphia chromosome (22) mutation, BCR-ABL1 positive, treated with imatinib

6

What does a monocyte look like under the microscope?

Horseshoe nucleus

White vacuoles

7

In which situations would you give a patient

a) iron tablets

b) iron injections?

a) Mild iron deficiency anaemia

b) Severe iron deficiency anaemia

8

How do you treat autoimmune haemolytic anaemia?

Steroids

9

How do you treat Waldenstrom's (IgM) disease?

Cytotoxic drugs

Plasma electropharesis

10

Which anticoagulant drugs target Factor Xa?

Rivaroxaban

Apixaban

Edoxaban

i.e all the novel anticoagulants with -xa- in their name

11

Which type of blood cells express CD20 antigens?

B cells

12

Which type of blood cells express CD30 antigens?

T cells

13

Which drug targets CD20 and can therefore be used to target B cell lymphomas?

Rituximab

14

Which drug targets BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase?

Which haematological malignancy is this enzyme associated with?

Imatinib

CML

15

Which drug targets Factors II, VII, IX and X?

Warfarin

16

Which disease is JAK2 mutation associated with?

Polycythaemia rubra vera

17

Which drug potentiates the action of antithrombin?

Which types of this drug potentiate antithrombin's action against

a) thrombin

b) factor Xa?

Heparin

a) Unfractionated heparin

b) LMWH e.g dalteparin

18

Which drug inhibits platelet activation by inactivating cycloxygenase enzymes?

Aspirin

19

Which drug inhibits primary haemostasis by antagonising ADP?

Clopidogrel

Ticagrelor

20

Which NOAC directly inhibits thrombin?

Dabigatran

21

Bence Jones proteins (light chains found in a urine sample) indicates which haematological malignancy?

Multiple myeloma

22

Which drugs tend to cause a prolonged

a) PT / INR

b) APTT?

a) Warfarin

b) Heparin

23

Which disease causes a drop in platelets and fibrinogen, plus prolonged clotting times?

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

Treat with platelet transfusions and fresh frozen plasma

Treat underlying cause

24

Which disease are you testing for with a JAK2 gene analysis?

Polycythaemia rubra vera

i.e primary polycythaemia

25

What is the purpose of a Coombs test?

To differentiate between an autoimmune and non-autoimmune cause of haemolytic anaemia

(Autoimmune HA is Coombs positive, other causes e.g Sickle cell are Coombs negative)

26

What disease is associated with a raised serum caeruloplasmin?

Wilson's disease

27

Immunophenotyping is used to differentiate between different kinds of ___.

lymphoma

28

What is a Kleihauer test used to detect?

Antepartum haemorrhage

29

Name two tests which can be used to detect thalassaemia.

Osmotic fragility analysis

Haemoglobin analysis

because this is a disease affecting globin chains

30

Name a cause of single factor deficiency.

Haemophilia A/B