Which reflex involves the opening of the ileocaecal valve to allow digested contents to pass through it?
What triggers the gastroileal reflex?
Which valve is opened by the gastroileal reflex?
What is the function of the ascending and transverse colon?
What is the function of the descending and sigmoid colon?
Dessication and storage of faeces
What triggers the gastrocolic reflex - strong peristalsis of muscles in the colon?
What are haustra?
Pouches formed in the colon, increasing the surface area for fluid and electrolyte reabsorption
What triggers the defecation reflex?
Which arm of the autonomic nervous system controls the involuntary relaxation of the internal anal sphincter?
What triggers the parasympathetic relaxation of the internal anal sphincter?
Rectal distension by faecal matter
While the initial relaxation of the internal anal sphincter is involuntary, what type of muscle controls the external anal sphincter?
What diseases are included under IBD?
Which class of drugs are used to maintain remission of UC?
Name two aminosalicylates which are used to treat UC.
What drugs act as anti-inflammatories in both UC and Crohn's?
Name some corticosteroids used as an anti-inflammatory in Crohn's and UC?
Corticosteroids have many side effects - what is the most important in terms of infection?
Name two "steroid-sparing" immunosuppressants used to treat Crohn's and UC.
Which expensive drugs are sometimes used to inhibit TNFalpha activity in severe IBD?
Which prefix tells you that a drug is a monoclonal antibody?