3: Physiology and pharmacology of the large intestine Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal Week 4 2016/17 > 3: Physiology and pharmacology of the large intestine > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3: Physiology and pharmacology of the large intestine Deck (20):
1

Which reflex involves the opening of the ileocaecal valve to allow digested contents to pass through it?

Gastroileal reflex

2

What triggers the gastroileal reflex?

Gastric distension

3

Which valve is opened by the gastroileal reflex?

Ileocaecal valve

4

What is the function of the ascending and transverse colon?

Fluid reabsorption

Bacterial fermentation

5

What is the function of the descending and sigmoid colon?

Dessication and storage of faeces

6

What triggers the gastrocolic reflex - strong peristalsis of muscles in the colon?

Meals

7

What are haustra?

Pouches formed in the colon, increasing the surface area for fluid and electrolyte reabsorption

8

What triggers the defecation reflex?

Rectal distension

9

Which arm of the autonomic nervous system controls the involuntary relaxation of the internal anal sphincter?

Parasympathetic

10

What triggers the parasympathetic relaxation of the internal anal sphincter?

Rectal distension by faecal matter

11

While the initial relaxation of the internal anal sphincter is involuntary, what type of muscle controls the external anal sphincter?

Skeletal muscle

12

What diseases are included under IBD?

Ulcerative colitis

Crohn's disease

13

Which class of drugs are used to maintain remission of UC?

Aminosalicylates

-alazines

14

Name two aminosalicylates which are used to treat UC.

Sulfalazine

Mesalazine

15

What drugs act as anti-inflammatories in both UC and Crohn's?

Corticosteroids

16

Name some corticosteroids used as an anti-inflammatory in Crohn's and UC?

Prednisolone

Hydrocortisone

Beclometasone

Budesonide

17

Corticosteroids have many side effects - what is the most important in terms of infection?

Immunodeficiency

18

Name two "steroid-sparing" immunosuppressants used to treat Crohn's and UC.

Azathioprine (Crohn's/UC)

Methotrexate (Crohn's)

19

Which expensive drugs are sometimes used to inhibit TNFalpha activity in severe IBD?

Monoclonal antibodies

20

Which prefix tells you that a drug is a monoclonal antibody?

-umab