3. Vertebrae Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3. Vertebrae Deck (12)
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which vertebrae are smallest/largest

cervical = smallest
thoracic = intermediate
lumbar = largest


name 2 characteristic features of cervical vertebrae

1. bifid spinous process (C2-C6)
2. transverse foramina in small transverse processes


what passes through the transverse foramina of the cervical spine

vertebral artery and vein enter at C6 (go into foramen magnum)

(C7 foramen only transmit accessory vertebral vein)


name 2 characteristic features of thoracic vertebrae

1. long spinous processes mostly project inferiorly
2. articular facets for ribs:
- demi-facets (T2-T8) or whole facets (T9-T10) on sides of body for articulation with head of rib
- costal facets on transverse processes for articulation with tubercle of rib


name 2 characteristic features of lumbar vertebrae

1. short blunt spinous process projecting posteriorly
2. large kidney-shaped vertebral body


describe the orientation of the vertebral articular facets and the movements these allow

- superior: posterosuperior; inferior: anteroinferior

- superior: posterolateral; inferior: anteromedial
- permits rotation, limits flexion

- superior: medial; inferior: lateral
- permits flexion/extension, limits rotation


name 3 characteristic features of atlas

1- no vertebral body
2- no spinous process
3- widest cervical vertebra


name the articulations of C1 and the movements these allow

1. C1 superior facets with occipital condyles of skull (atlanto-occipital joint) - 50% total flexion/extension (nodding)

2. C1 inferior facets with C2 superior facets (atlanto-axial joint) + articular facet for dens - 50% total rotation (shaking)


name 3 characteristic feature of axis

1- odontoid process/dens
2- rugged lateral mass
3- large spinous process


what supports the atlas-odontoid process articulation

transverse ligament


what is the function of the odontoid process and transverse ligament

1. allows lateral rotation
2. prevents horizontal displacement of atlas


what are the special characteristics of C7

1- longest spinous process (not bifid)
2- large transverse process but small foramen transversarium - only transmits accessory vertebral veins