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Flashcards in 3.0 Hardware Deck (37)
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CAD/CAM workstation

(CAD)Computer Aided Design /(CAM)Computer Aided Manufacturing
• High-speed storage
• High-end video
• Complex graphics
• Maximum RAM
• Significant memory use


VDI client

VDI (Virtual Desktop Infrastructure) clients display applications that are
running on other servers, and it's very common to run VDI clients on thin
clients or other minimally-configured systems.



A NAS (Network Attached Storage) server requires plenty of storage and
high-speed networking, but does not require advanced video functionality.


Thin client

A thin client is a computer with the minimum hardware resources
required to perform a remote desktop or remote control function. The
applications used on a thin client are run on a remote server, so the local
device does not require any high-end components.



The DVD-ROM (Digital Versatile Disc - Read Only Memory) format
has the advantage of a relatively large storage area and the ability to
write once and never worry about an accidental deletion. The storage of
documents and other files is a common use of DVD-ROM optical discs.



• Keyboard, Video and Mouse
• Use many computers with a single keyboard, video display, and mouse


Graphics workstations

• Computer Aided Design (CAD) /
• Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
• High-speed storage
• High-end video
• Complex graphics
• Maximum RAM
• Significant memory use
Audio/Video editing workstation


Audio/Video editing workstation

• Specialized audio and video card
• High quality audio
• Powerful video
• Large fast hard drive
• Constant disk writes
• Dual monitors
• Edit in one monitor, view output in the other


Virtualization workstation

• Maximum RAM
• Every OS needs its own memory
• It adds up quickly!
• Maximum CPU cores
• Constant processing
• Need an efficient CPU
• Most virtualization apps can use multiple cores


Gaming PC

• Fast start and load times
• High-end video/specialized GPU
• Graphically complex
• High definition sound card
• Multiple layers, atmosphere
• High-end cooling
• High utilization for hours at a time


Standard thick client

• Desktop applications
• Executable programs running in
local memory and using local CPU
• Meets recommended requirements for
running the operating system
• CPU, total RAM, disk space


Thin client

• Basic application usage
• Applications actually run on a remote server
• Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)
• Local device is a keyboard, mouse, and screen.
• Minimal operating system on the client
• No huge memory or CPU needs
• Network connectivity
• Big network requirement
• Everything happens across the wire



Network attached storage device
• NAS - Access from anywhere
• Media streaming - Central location
• File sharing - Easy access
• Gigabit NIC - High speed transfers
• RAID array - Redundant hard drives


Laser printer

• Combine a laser, high voltage, charged ions,
powdered ink, heat, and paper
• Very high quality
• Fast printing speeds
• Very complex, many moving parts, requires on-printer
memory and messy on the inside


Laser printer STEPS

Step 1: Processing
• Build the entire page in memory
Step 2: Charging
• Prepare the drum with a
negative electrostatic charge
Step 3: Exposing
• Write the image with the laser
Step 4: Developing
• Add toner to the charged areas
of the imaging drum
Step 5: Transferring
• Move the toner from
the drum to the paper
Step 6: Fusing
• Heat and pressure
Step 7: Cleaning
• Remove excess toner


802.11 Ad hoc mode

• No access point
• Direct link between wireless devices

Ad hoc mode allows two devices to directly communicate over an 802.11
wireless link without using an access point.


Secure Boot

• Malicious software can “own” your system
• Malicious drivers or OS software
• Secure boot - part of the UEFI specification
• Digitally sign known-good software
• Cryptographically secure
• Software won’t run without the proper signature
• Support in many different operating systems
• Windows and Linux support


BIOS passwords

• BIOS Password / User Password
• System won’t start
• Need the password to start the operating system
• Supervisor Password
• Restrict BIOS changes
• Must use supervisor password to change
any BIOS configurations


Full disk encryption

• Everything is encrypted
• Not just individual files
• Windows BitLocker disk encryption
• BIOS integrates with TPM
• TPM - Trusted Platform Module
• Can be added to many motherboards
• Built-in to some systems
• Adds advanced cryptographic functions


LoJack for Laptops

Originally called CompuTrace
• Name licensed from the vehicle recovery service
• Built into the BIOS - software installed into the OS
• Reinstalls itself if removed or new storage drive installed
• “Phone home” function - provides location information
• Theft mode`- remotely lock the laptop and/or delete files
• Forces a startup password


A laser printer prints continuous black vertical lines down on the centre of the page. What is most likely the problem?

The drum is scratched.


Vertical Streaks or Lines in Laser printers

Empty toner cartridge
Scratched drum
Poorly distributed toner

Swapping out the cartridge for another should help you rule it out as the culprit. Vertical white lines also can signal an obstruction that prevents the laser from imaging pages correctly. Resolving that problem can require cleaning elements of the laser assembly or replacing it altogether.


Horizontal Lines in Laser printers

Horizontal printing defects and marks that appear at consistent intervals can arise from contaminated rollers. Manufacturers issue model-specific repetitive defect rulers you can use to correlate the position of the defects on the page with the arrangement and size of the rollers, cartridge components, fuser parts and other potential causes of non-random markings. Dropouts and non-repeating marks can result from the same problems that cause vertical defects, including laser contamination and toner cartridge malfunctions.


Laser printer calibration

• Different toner cartridges print with different densities
• Some dark, some light
• Laser printer calibration can adjust the density
• Makes it looks perfect
• Can be automated or a manual process
• Every printer is different
• Check the printer manual


Laser printer cleaning

• Laser printers are dirty - All that toner and paper dust
• Check the manufacturer’s recommendations
• Water, isopropyl alcohol (IPA)
• Don’t use harsh chemicals!
• Outside - Damp cloth
• Inside - Wipe dust away
• Don’t use a normal vacuum cleaner or compressed air
• Wash off skin with cold water
• Clean rollers with IPA


Laser printer maintenance kit

• Laser printers wear out
• All those moving parts
• Heat and pressure
• Standard maintenance kits
• Replacement feed rollers, new fuser unit, etc.
• When to perform maintenance?
• Check the printer’s page counter
• Power down and replace the components
• Fuser units are HOT
• Reset the page counter when you’re done!


Replacing the toner cartridge

• Look for the messages
• Low doesn’t mean empty
• The toner can also contain the OPC drum
• Organic Photoconductor drum
• Sensitive to light; keep it in the bag
• Power down the printer
• Safety first
• Remove packing strips from the new drum
• Replace it with the old


TRACERT command

If you are having connectivity problems, you can use the tracert command to check the path to the destination IP address that you want to reach and record the results. The tracert command displays the series of IP routers that are used in delivering packets from your computer to the destination and how long it took on each hop. If the packets are unable to be delivered to the destination, the tracert command displays the last router that successfully forwarded your packets.


Plug and Play

Plug and Play (PnP) is a combination of hardware and software support that enables a computer system to recognize and adapt to hardware configuration changes with little or no intervention by a user. A user can add devices to, and remove devices from, a computer system without having to do awkward and confusing manual configuration, and without having knowledge of intricate computer hardware. For example, a user can dock a portable computer and use the docking station keyboard, mouse, and monitor without making manual configuration changes.


What Is a Virtual LAN (VLAN)?

A virtual local area network is a logical subnetwork that groups a collection of devices from different physical LANs. Large business computer networks often set up VLANs to re-partition a network for improved traffic management. Several kinds of physical networks support virtual LANs, including Ethernet and Wi-Fi.