3.02 Histology Flashcards Preview

Hematology and Immunology > 3.02 Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.02 Histology Deck (53):
1

How many liters of blood does a human being have?

5 liters

2

Aggregation of similar tissues in a matrix

Connective tissue

3

4 blood components:

1. Erythrocytes
2. Leukocytes
3. Platelets
4. Plasma

4

Red blood cells have a high affinity for the dye __, hence they are called __. They can also be described as __.

eosin; eosinophilia; acidophilic

5

Blood component that dyes salmon pink/lilac

Neutrophilia

6

Blood cell that has an affinity for basic dye methylene blue

Basophilia

7

This blood cell's DNA is in the nuclei, and the RNA in its cytoplasm

Basophilia

8

Blood cells that have an affinity for blue dyes

Azuraphilia

9

Azure dyes are typical of __

Lysosomes

10

Main function of erythrocytes

oxygen and carbon dioxide transport

11

Why are red blood cells biconcave?

to increase the ratio of surface area to volume of the cell; this increases the transport efficiency of red blood cells

12

What are the two factors that account for why RBCs are biconcave?

Proteins and water content

13

What is the main protein responsible for the shape of an RBC?

Spectrin

14

What determines the water content of a cell?

Number of solutes

15

T/F. RBCs have no nuclei, but they contain organelles.

False. RBCs have neither nuclei nor organelles.

16

Premature form of RBCs

Reticulocytes

17

T/F. All RBCs have no nuclei.

True. Reticulocytes have no nuclei, but have nuclear material.

18

What is/are the clinical important of Reticulocytes?

-serve as guides in showing how well the bone marrow is producing RBCs

19

Antigens are found in the surface of which blood cells?

RBCs

20

Reticulocytes lose what kind of dye affinity after 24 hours in circulation; this means that they lose affinity for (acidic/basic) dyes because they lose their __.

basophilia; basic; nuclear material

21

There is a normal range of __ - __ platelets were cubic millimeter of blood

150,000-450,000

22

Formation of plug so that blood will not escape the endothelial lining

platelet adhesion

23

Stage of clotting where platelets start to clump together

platelet aggregation

24

peripheral zone : 1. ___ :: central zone : 2. ___

1. hyalomere
2. granulomere

25

What are the two classifications of white blood cells, and which WBCs are classified under each of them?

- Granular (polymorphonuclear)
1. Neutrophils
2. Eosinophils
3. Basophils
- Non-granular (mononuclear)
1. Lymphocytes
2. Monocytes

26

These are the only formed elements that are complete cells, with nuclei and usual organelles

Leukocytes

27

There are __ - __ WBCs per cubic millimeter of blood

4,800-10,800

28

1. Formed element that is characterized by its several lobes. 2. The more lobes there are, the (older/younger) the formed element.

1. Neutrophil
2. older

29

Kinds of granules of granulocytes and their functions

1. specific - involved in non-enzymatic antibacterial activity
2. azurophilic - correspond to lysosomes, rich in enzymes, first to appear

30

What other enzymes are present in neutrophils?

Gelatinase, there are also secretory granules

31

Function of neutrophils

fight bacterial infection

32

What do drumsticks show?

an inactive X chromosome

33

Which blood elements stay intravascular?

RBCs and platelets

34

What is diapedesis?

process as to how WBCs exit cells through capillaries

35

What is chemotaxis?

process when neutrophils move to an area where the bacteria are; homing in on inflammatory chemicals/chemotactic agents

36

T/F. Neutrophils die after they have completed their 'mission'

True. The pus produced in wounds is dead neutrophil

37

What are the characteristics of eosinophils? (number of lobes, trademark color, function and location)

bilobed; pink-stained; associated with parasitism and allergies; mainly found in tissues exposed to allergens (GI tract, respiratory, spleen)

38

What are the characteristics of basophils? (lobes, differentiated from eosinophils, affinity of granule to particular dyes)

bilobed like eosinophils but have darker granules; basophilic, sometimes considered metachromatic

39

Two substances contained in granules of basophils and their functions

1. heparin - anticoagulant
2. histamine - allergic reactions

40

The only WBC that returns to blood

Lymphocyte

41

Characteristics of lymphocytes (nucleus staining, abundance, granules)

darkly stained nucleus, second most abundant WBC, cytoplasm does not have discrete granules unlike neutrophils

42

Classifications of Lymphocytes

T cells and B cells

43

Describe T cells

After production in bone marrow, goes to the thymus; helps in recognition and destruction of foreign agents; uses lymphokines to to signal B cells

44

Describe B cells

After production in bone marrow, goes directly to the blood; produces immunoglobulins

45

Substance used by T cells to communicate with B cells

Lymphokines

46

Largest of the WBCs

Monocytes

47

WBC with notched nucleus, cytoplasm relatively free of granules

Monocytes

48

Main function of Monocytes?

Ingest cellular debris and older cells that need to be cleaned our of the system

49

What do you call monocytes that have migrated through the vessel walls and are now in the periphery?

Tissue macrophages

50

Fluid component of blood

Plasma

51

What are the plasma proteins? What are their functions?

Albumin: prevents regression of fluids out of the vessels
Globulins: mainly for immune response
Fibrinogen: clotting
Complement: immune response

52

What is the main function of blood plasma?

Colloidal pressure: maintain the balance between intravascular volume and cellular fluid

53

Plasma without the proteins is called __.

Serum