Flashcards in 3.02 Histology Deck (53):
How many liters of blood does a human being have?
Aggregation of similar tissues in a matrix
4 blood components:
Red blood cells have a high affinity for the dye __, hence they are called __. They can also be described as __.
eosin; eosinophilia; acidophilic
Blood component that dyes salmon pink/lilac
Blood cell that has an affinity for basic dye methylene blue
This blood cell's DNA is in the nuclei, and the RNA in its cytoplasm
Blood cells that have an affinity for blue dyes
Azure dyes are typical of __
Main function of erythrocytes
oxygen and carbon dioxide transport
Why are red blood cells biconcave?
to increase the ratio of surface area to volume of the cell; this increases the transport efficiency of red blood cells
What are the two factors that account for why RBCs are biconcave?
Proteins and water content
What is the main protein responsible for the shape of an RBC?
What determines the water content of a cell?
Number of solutes
T/F. RBCs have no nuclei, but they contain organelles.
False. RBCs have neither nuclei nor organelles.
Premature form of RBCs
T/F. All RBCs have no nuclei.
True. Reticulocytes have no nuclei, but have nuclear material.
What is/are the clinical important of Reticulocytes?
-serve as guides in showing how well the bone marrow is producing RBCs
Antigens are found in the surface of which blood cells?
Reticulocytes lose what kind of dye affinity after 24 hours in circulation; this means that they lose affinity for (acidic/basic) dyes because they lose their __.
basophilia; basic; nuclear material
There is a normal range of __ - __ platelets were cubic millimeter of blood
Formation of plug so that blood will not escape the endothelial lining
Stage of clotting where platelets start to clump together
peripheral zone : 1. ___ :: central zone : 2. ___
What are the two classifications of white blood cells, and which WBCs are classified under each of them?
- Granular (polymorphonuclear)
- Non-granular (mononuclear)
These are the only formed elements that are complete cells, with nuclei and usual organelles
There are __ - __ WBCs per cubic millimeter of blood
1. Formed element that is characterized by its several lobes. 2. The more lobes there are, the (older/younger) the formed element.
Kinds of granules of granulocytes and their functions
1. specific - involved in non-enzymatic antibacterial activity
2. azurophilic - correspond to lysosomes, rich in enzymes, first to appear
What other enzymes are present in neutrophils?
Gelatinase, there are also secretory granules
Function of neutrophils
fight bacterial infection
What do drumsticks show?
an inactive X chromosome
Which blood elements stay intravascular?
RBCs and platelets
What is diapedesis?
process as to how WBCs exit cells through capillaries
What is chemotaxis?
process when neutrophils move to an area where the bacteria are; homing in on inflammatory chemicals/chemotactic agents
T/F. Neutrophils die after they have completed their 'mission'
True. The pus produced in wounds is dead neutrophil
What are the characteristics of eosinophils? (number of lobes, trademark color, function and location)
bilobed; pink-stained; associated with parasitism and allergies; mainly found in tissues exposed to allergens (GI tract, respiratory, spleen)
What are the characteristics of basophils? (lobes, differentiated from eosinophils, affinity of granule to particular dyes)
bilobed like eosinophils but have darker granules; basophilic, sometimes considered metachromatic
Two substances contained in granules of basophils and their functions
1. heparin - anticoagulant
2. histamine - allergic reactions
The only WBC that returns to blood
Characteristics of lymphocytes (nucleus staining, abundance, granules)
darkly stained nucleus, second most abundant WBC, cytoplasm does not have discrete granules unlike neutrophils
Classifications of Lymphocytes
T cells and B cells
Describe T cells
After production in bone marrow, goes to the thymus; helps in recognition and destruction of foreign agents; uses lymphokines to to signal B cells
Describe B cells
After production in bone marrow, goes directly to the blood; produces immunoglobulins
Substance used by T cells to communicate with B cells
Largest of the WBCs
WBC with notched nucleus, cytoplasm relatively free of granules
Main function of Monocytes?
Ingest cellular debris and older cells that need to be cleaned our of the system
What do you call monocytes that have migrated through the vessel walls and are now in the periphery?
Fluid component of blood
What are the plasma proteins? What are their functions?
Albumin: prevents regression of fluids out of the vessels
Globulins: mainly for immune response
Complement: immune response
What is the main function of blood plasma?
Colloidal pressure: maintain the balance between intravascular volume and cellular fluid