3.11 Intro to Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.11 Intro to Immunology Deck (41):
1

Defense mechanism that is already in place even before the infection of microbes

Innate immunity

2

T/F. The innate immunity ONLY reacts to microbes and products of injured cells

True

3

T/F. The innate immunity responds better in subsequent infections, hence it's efficiency.

False. It responds in essentially in the same way to repeated infection

4

T/F. For the products of injured cells, the components of the innate immunity can recognize molecules that are products of damaged cells that dies by apoptosis.

False. They should not have dies via apoptosis, but rather from stress, trauma, etc

5

Four components of the innate pathway

1. physical and chemical barriers
2. phagocytic cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells
3. blood proteins
4. proteins that coordinate and regulate activities

6

Why is the adaptive immunity also called specific and acquired immunity?

Specific - distinguishes different and even closely related microbes and molecules
Acquired - developed responses adapt to infection

7

Foreign substances that induce specific immune responses, are recognized by lymphocytes or antibodies

antigens

8

Components of the adaptive pathway

lymphocytes and their secreted products

9

What are the two kinds of adaptive immunity response?

Humoral and cell-mediated

10

What mediates humoral immunity?

antibodies produced by plasma B cells

11

Three functions of the humoral immunity

1. recognize microbial antigens
2. neutralize the infectivity of microbes
3. target microbes for elimination

12

What mediates adaptive immunity?

T lymphocytes (helper and cytotoxic)

13

Primary defense mechanism against
(extracellular/intracellular)
humoral : ___ :: adaptive : ___

humoral : extracellular :: adaptive : intracellular

14

What are the 7 cardinal features of adaptive immune responses?

specificity
diversity
memory
clonal expansion
specialization
contraction and homeostasis
non-reactivity to self

15

Parts of the antigen specifically recognized by lymphocytes

Epitopes/determinants

16

What kind of cells in cell-mediated immunity enables a larger and faster antibody response upon repeated exposure to antigen?

Memory B and T cell

17

Cardinal feature of adaptive immunity that pertains to the generation of optimal responses for defense against different types of microbes

Specialization

18

What generally causes clonal expansion?

Stimulation by exposure to an antigen and activation of the lymphocyte

19

These specifically recognize and respond to antigens

Lymphocytes

20

T/F. Both B cells and T cells can differentiate into memory cells.

True

21

The only cells capable of producing antibodies

B lymphocytes (plasma cells)

22

These are the mediators of humoral immunity

B lymphocytes

23

How should foreign proteins be presented so that the T lymphocytes would be able to recognize them?

Foreign peptide must be BOUND to major histocompatibility complex

24

Populations classified under T lymphocytes

helper T cells
cytotoxic T cells
regulatory T cells
NK cells

25

Lymphocyte that secretes cytokines that helps in the proliferation of more T cells and activation of others

Helper T cells

26

Lymphocytes that recognize antigens and directly kill it

Cytotoxic T cells

27

Lymphocytes that inhibit immune response; important for self-tolerance

Regulatory T cells

28

This lymphocyte can be part of both the innate and the adaptive immunity; it kills infected cells by direct killing

NK cells

29

These capture and display antigens to naive T lymphocytes; what are the two kinds?

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs); dendritic cells and macrophages

30

Cellular component of adaptive immunity that mediate the final effect of the immune response to eliminate the microbe

Effector Cells

31

What composes the Effector cells (3)?

T lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, leukocytes

32

Heterogenous group of proteins that mediate and regulate all aspects of innate and adaptive immunity

Cytokines

33

What initiates the synthesis of cytokines?

New gene transcription as a result of cellular activation; once synthesized, they are rapidly secreted

34

Two main types of reactions in the early innate immune response

Inflammation and anti-viral defense

35

Type of reaction in early innate immune response that is cytokine-mediated

Anti-viral defense

36

When microbes are able to enter the blood during early innate immune response, they are recognized by the ____.

Alternative pathway of the complement system

37

What basically happens in alternative pathway of the complement system?

mediation of inflammatory response;
coating of microbes for enhances phagocytosis, followed by direct lysing of microbes

38

3 main strategies to combat most microbes

1. antibodies bind to extracellular microbes
2. phagocytes ingest microbes and kill them
3. cytotoxic T cells destroy infected cells

39

Five steps in the adaptive immune response

1. antigen recognition
2. lymphocyte activation
3. antigen elimination
4. contraction (homeostasis)
5. immunologic memory

40

This component carries out the capture of microbes, concentration of their antigens and the delivery of the antigens to specific lymphocytes

antigen-presenting cells

41

Hypothesis where lymphocytes specific for a large number of antigens exist before exposure to the antigens

Clonal selection hypothesis