Flashcards in 3.11 Intro to Immunology Deck (41):
Defense mechanism that is already in place even before the infection of microbes
T/F. The innate immunity ONLY reacts to microbes and products of injured cells
T/F. The innate immunity responds better in subsequent infections, hence it's efficiency.
False. It responds in essentially in the same way to repeated infection
T/F. For the products of injured cells, the components of the innate immunity can recognize molecules that are products of damaged cells that dies by apoptosis.
False. They should not have dies via apoptosis, but rather from stress, trauma, etc
Four components of the innate pathway
1. physical and chemical barriers
2. phagocytic cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells
3. blood proteins
4. proteins that coordinate and regulate activities
Why is the adaptive immunity also called specific and acquired immunity?
Specific - distinguishes different and even closely related microbes and molecules
Acquired - developed responses adapt to infection
Foreign substances that induce specific immune responses, are recognized by lymphocytes or antibodies
Components of the adaptive pathway
lymphocytes and their secreted products
What are the two kinds of adaptive immunity response?
Humoral and cell-mediated
What mediates humoral immunity?
antibodies produced by plasma B cells
Three functions of the humoral immunity
1. recognize microbial antigens
2. neutralize the infectivity of microbes
3. target microbes for elimination
What mediates adaptive immunity?
T lymphocytes (helper and cytotoxic)
Primary defense mechanism against
humoral : ___ :: adaptive : ___
humoral : extracellular :: adaptive : intracellular
What are the 7 cardinal features of adaptive immune responses?
contraction and homeostasis
non-reactivity to self
Parts of the antigen specifically recognized by lymphocytes
What kind of cells in cell-mediated immunity enables a larger and faster antibody response upon repeated exposure to antigen?
Memory B and T cell
Cardinal feature of adaptive immunity that pertains to the generation of optimal responses for defense against different types of microbes
What generally causes clonal expansion?
Stimulation by exposure to an antigen and activation of the lymphocyte
These specifically recognize and respond to antigens
T/F. Both B cells and T cells can differentiate into memory cells.
The only cells capable of producing antibodies
B lymphocytes (plasma cells)
These are the mediators of humoral immunity
How should foreign proteins be presented so that the T lymphocytes would be able to recognize them?
Foreign peptide must be BOUND to major histocompatibility complex
Populations classified under T lymphocytes
helper T cells
cytotoxic T cells
regulatory T cells
Lymphocyte that secretes cytokines that helps in the proliferation of more T cells and activation of others
Helper T cells
Lymphocytes that recognize antigens and directly kill it
Cytotoxic T cells
Lymphocytes that inhibit immune response; important for self-tolerance
Regulatory T cells
This lymphocyte can be part of both the innate and the adaptive immunity; it kills infected cells by direct killing
These capture and display antigens to naive T lymphocytes; what are the two kinds?
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs); dendritic cells and macrophages
Cellular component of adaptive immunity that mediate the final effect of the immune response to eliminate the microbe
What composes the Effector cells (3)?
T lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, leukocytes
Heterogenous group of proteins that mediate and regulate all aspects of innate and adaptive immunity
What initiates the synthesis of cytokines?
New gene transcription as a result of cellular activation; once synthesized, they are rapidly secreted
Two main types of reactions in the early innate immune response
Inflammation and anti-viral defense
Type of reaction in early innate immune response that is cytokine-mediated
When microbes are able to enter the blood during early innate immune response, they are recognized by the ____.
Alternative pathway of the complement system
What basically happens in alternative pathway of the complement system?
mediation of inflammatory response;
coating of microbes for enhances phagocytosis, followed by direct lysing of microbes
3 main strategies to combat most microbes
1. antibodies bind to extracellular microbes
2. phagocytes ingest microbes and kill them
3. cytotoxic T cells destroy infected cells
Five steps in the adaptive immune response
1. antigen recognition
2. lymphocyte activation
3. antigen elimination
4. contraction (homeostasis)
5. immunologic memory
This component carries out the capture of microbes, concentration of their antigens and the delivery of the antigens to specific lymphocytes