3.05 Hemopoiesis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.05 Hemopoiesis Deck (54):
1

This is known as the process of producing new blood cells

Hemopoiesis

2

What are the corresponding life spans of the following:
RBCs
Platelets
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes

120 days
9-12 days
Granular: 7 hours --> 1-2 days
Years
1-3 days --> months to years

3

Theory of hematopoiesis that states that each of the blood cell lineages is derived from its own unique stem cell. Is this the favored theory?

polyphyletic theory; no

4

Theory of hematopoiesis that states that all blood cells come from a common stem cell. Is this the favored theory? What do you call the said stem cell?

Monophyletic/unitarian theory; no; pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell

5

What marker is used to recognize PHSCs through immunological special methods?

CD34 marker

6

Differentiate stem cells from progenitor cells

Stem cells have the ability to self-replicate and self-renew. Progenitor cells are already committed to dividing into a particular cell line.

7

Differentiate progenitor cells from precursor cells.

Progenitor cells can give rise to one cell line once injected into the spleen, and they are not morphological distinguishable. Precursor cells have already assumed the morphological features of the mature, functional stem cells they will become.

8

First phase of hematopoiesis, it's location and when does it happen?

Mesoblastic phase; yolk sac; third month of fetal life

9

Second phase of hematopoiesis, it's location and when does it happen?

Hepatic phase; liver, spleen and maybe the lymph nodes; begins during the 2nd trimester of fetal life

10

Third phase of hematopoiesis, it's location and when does it happen?

Myeloid phase; bone marrow; third trimester of fetal life

11

After birth, the bones are mostly composed of __ marrow which is (active/inactive) in hemopoiesis, and gradually becomes __ marrow, which is (active, inactive) as the person ages.

Red, active; yellow, inactive

12

Red marrow is supported by __, composed of __ and __.

Red marrow is supported by stroma, composed of reticular cells and reticular fibers

13

Marrow where old erythrocytes go to be phagocytosed by macrophages

Red marrow

14

T/F. The change from red marrow to yellow marrow as the person ages is permanent.

False. Yellow marrow can be converted back to red marrow during time of need, e.g. hypoxia, severe blood loss

15

Pertains to the production of red blood cells

Erythropoiesis

16

This is known as the precursor cell of erythrocytes. (Euchromatin, Heterochromatin) is more prominent in this stage.

Proerythroblast; euchromatin

17

Proerythroblasts divide to produce __. __ disappear in this stage. Hemoglobin will start to be produced by the __.

Basophilic erythroblasts; Nucleoli; ribosomes

18

This stage of erythropoiesis is characterized by a more heterochromatic nucleus than basophilic erythroblasts.

Polychromatic erythroblast

19

Last stage of erythropoiesis that is capable of cellular division

Polychromatic erythroblast

20

Stage of erythropoiesis where the nucleus starts to become more densely heterochromatic, and the cytoplasm becomes more acidophilic because of a decrease in ribosomes.

Orthochromatic erythroblast

21

Stage where erythrocytes can enter the blood stream.

Reticulocytes

22

Stage where the nucleus is already absent and the shape is a biconcave.

Mature RBCs

23

This is the main hormone/protein for erythropoiesis. It is produced in the __.

Erythropoietin; kidneys

24

Erythroproietin stimulates the production of __, the protein component of hemoglobin.

Globin

25

This hormone that affects erythropoiesis is essential for synthesis of thymidine triphosphate.

Vitamin B12

26

Process of differentiation of CFU-GM to either granulocytes or monocytes

Granulopoiesis

27

How long does it take for mature cells to be produced through granulopoiesis?

18 days

28

One of the two granules that granulocytes have that stains with basic dyes and gradually decreases in number as the cell ages

azurophilic granules

29

What do azurophilic granules contain?

lysosomal enzymes

30

When do azurophilic granules appear?

promyelocyte cell

31

Contents of these granules differentiate the three different granulocytes

Specific granules

32

Specific granules start to appear during this stage of granulopoiesis

myelocyte cell

33

first recognizable/identifiable cell in the granulocytic lineage

myeloblast

34

Stage of granulopoiesis when the nucleus is largely euchromatic with dispersed chromatic and multiple nuclei. It also has a basophilic cytoplasm.

Myeloblast

35

Stage of granulopoiesis where azurophilic granules stop to be produced.

Myelocyte

36

Last stage of granulopoiesis for cell division

Myelocyte

37

T/F. Eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils start to differentiate at the level of metamyelocytes.

False. Granulocytes differentiate at myelocyte stage because this is the stage when specific granules start to appear.

38

Stage in granulopoiesis where the nucleus changes from round to indented or kidney shaped. Azurophilic granules in this stage stain deeply, while specific granules are only faintly stained.

Metamyelocyte

39

Latter stages of metamyelocyte where the nucleus is more indented or U-shaped

Juvenile, Band or Stab Form

40

What are the three stages of monocytopoiesis

Monoblast, promonocyte, monocyte

41

Stage of monocytopoiesis where the nucleus is largely basophilic

Monoblast

42

Stage of monocytopoiesis when the nucleus becomes more euchromatic, with basophilic cytoplasm

Promonocyte

43

T/F. Monocytes can only start functioning after they go out of the blood vessels.

True

44

Monocytes change into what when they enter the connective tissue, lymphoid organs and bone marrow?

Macrophages

45

What do you call macrophages that reside in:
1. lungs?
2. liver?
3. bones?
4. skin?
5. CNS?

1. alveolar macrophages
2. Kupffer cells
3. Osteoclasts
4. Langerhan
5. Microglial cells

46

Precursor of lymphocytes

Lymphoblast

47

Lymphoblasts that enter the thymus mature into __

T-lymphocytes

48

Lymphoblasts that go into the liver and spleen are those that have developed into __

prolymphocytes

49

Prolymphocytes further develop into __

B lymphocytes

50

Production of platelets

Thrombocytopoiesis

51

Which CFU develop into the precursors for platelets?

CFU-Me

52

What are the precursor for platelets?

Megakaryoblast

53

1. The megakaryoblast undergoes a process where the DNA replicate without division of the nucleus and cytoplasm resulting in a large cell. 2. This large cell is called a __.

1. endomitosis
2. megakaryocyte

54

Channels that mark the separation of clustered azurophilic granules of megakaryoblasts.

Platelet demarcation channels