35a. Latin to English Flashcards Preview

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1. A certain number of verbs, which in English apparently take a direct object, in Latin take a dative. In lieu of a good rule to cover such verbs, what procedures can prove helpful?

1. These verbs are often intransitive, the dative indicates that there is an attitude or relationship (e.g. nocēre “be injurious to,” parcō “be lenient toward.” Wheelock suggests combining a knowledge of this concept with an ability to recognize which particular verbs take this construction. (You can usually translate a verb that takes the dative in a way reflects the use of the dative. e.g. pareō means “obey” but can be translated “be obedient to.”

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2. Some other verbs also, when compounded with certain prepositions, may take a dative. What is the concept that underlies this?

2. Compound verbs generally take the dative when the compounded verb is significantly different in meaning from the uncompounded one, e.g. Eum sequor. (“I follow him.”) vs Eī obsequor. (“I obey him,” literally “I follow in his direction.”

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2b. Do all compound verbs take the dative?

2b. No. If the meaning of the compound verb is not very different from that of the uncompounded form, it usually does not take a dative, e.g. Ad nōs vēnit and Ad nōs advēnit both mean “He came to us.”

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3a. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: cognōscunt.

3a. Cognōscunt eum. “They recognize him.”

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3b. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: ignōscunt.

3b. Ignōscunt eī. “They forgive him.”

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3c. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: serviunt.

3c. Serviunt eī. “They serve him.”

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3d. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: servant

3d. Servant eum. “They save him.”

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3e. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: parāvī.

3e. Parāvī eum. “I prepared him.”

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3f. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: pāruī.

3f. Pāruī eī. “I obeyed him.”

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3g. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: patiuntur.

3g. Patiuntur eum. “They endure him.”

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3h. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: invenient.

3h. Invenient eum. “They will find him.”

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3i. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: nocent.

3i. Nocent eī. “They injure him.”

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3j. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: iuvant.

3j. Iuvant eum. “They help him.”

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3k. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: placent.

3k. Placent eī. “They please him.”

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3l. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: iaciunt.

3l. Iaciunt eum. “They throw him.”

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3m. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: superant.

3m. Superant eum. “They overcome him.”

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3n. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: crēdunt.

3n. Crēdunt eī. “They trust him.

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3o. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: carent.

3o. Carent eō. “They lack it.”

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3p. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: student.

3p. Student eī. “They study it.”

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3q. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: hortantur.

3q. Hortantur eum. “They urge him.”

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3r. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: sequuntur.

3r. Sequuntur eum. “They follow him.”

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3s. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: persuadent.

3s. Persuadent eī. “They persuade him.”

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3t. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: ūtuntur.

3t. Ūtuntur eō. “They use it (him).”

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3u. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: pellunt.

3u. Pellunt eum. “They strike him.”

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3v. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: parcunt.

3v. Parcunt eī. “They spare him.”

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3w. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: imperant.

3w. Imperant eī. “They command him.”

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3x. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: iubent.

3x. Iubent eum. “They order him.”

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4. Ducem servāvit.

4. He saved the leader.

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5. Ducī servīvit.

5. He served the leader.

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5a. Ducī servīvit. Explain the syntax of ducī.

5a. ducī is dative with a special verb.