35a. Latin to English Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 35a. Latin to English Deck (61):
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1. A certain number of verbs, which in English apparently take a direct object, in Latin take a dative. In lieu of a good rule to cover such verbs, what procedures can prove helpful?

1. These verbs are often intransitive, the dative indicates that there is an attitude or relationship (e.g. nocēre “be injurious to,” parcō “be lenient toward.” Wheelock suggests combining a knowledge of this concept with an ability to recognize which particular verbs take this construction. (You can usually translate a verb that takes the dative in a way reflects the use of the dative. e.g. pareō means “obey” but can be translated “be obedient to.”

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2. Some other verbs also, when compounded with certain prepositions, may take a dative. What is the concept that underlies this?

2. Compound verbs generally take the dative when the compounded verb is significantly different in meaning from the uncompounded one, e.g. Eum sequor. (“I follow him.”) vs Eī obsequor. (“I obey him,” literally “I follow in his direction.”

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2b. Do all compound verbs take the dative?

2b. No. If the meaning of the compound verb is not very different from that of the uncompounded form, it usually does not take a dative, e.g. Ad nōs vēnit and Ad nōs advēnit both mean “He came to us.”

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3a. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: cognōscunt.

3a. Cognōscunt eum. “They recognize him.”

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3b. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: ignōscunt.

3b. Ignōscunt eī. “They forgive him.”

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3c. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: serviunt.

3c. Serviunt eī. “They serve him.”

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3d. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: servant

3d. Servant eum. “They save him.”

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3e. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: parāvī.

3e. Parāvī eum. “I prepared him.”

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3f. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: pāruī.

3f. Pāruī eī. “I obeyed him.”

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3g. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: patiuntur.

3g. Patiuntur eum. “They endure him.”

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3h. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: invenient.

3h. Invenient eum. “They will find him.”

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3i. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: nocent.

3i. Nocent eī. “They injure him.”

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3j. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: iuvant.

3j. Iuvant eum. “They help him.”

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3k. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: placent.

3k. Placent eī. “They please him.”

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3l. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: iaciunt.

3l. Iaciunt eum. “They throw him.”

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3m. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: superant.

3m. Superant eum. “They overcome him.”

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3n. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: crēdunt.

3n. Crēdunt eī. “They trust him.

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3o. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: carent.

3o. Carent eō. “They lack it.”

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3p. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: student.

3p. Student eī. “They study it.”

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3q. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: hortantur.

3q. Hortantur eum. “They urge him.”

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3r. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: sequuntur.

3r. Sequuntur eum. “They follow him.”

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3s. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: persuadent.

3s. Persuadent eī. “They persuade him.”

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3t. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: ūtuntur.

3t. Ūtuntur eō. “They use it (him).”

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3u. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: pellunt.

3u. Pellunt eum. “They strike him.”

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3v. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: parcunt.

3v. Parcunt eī. “They spare him.”

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3w. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: imperant.

3w. Imperant eī. “They command him.”

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3x. Combine this verb with eī, eum, or eō as appropriate, and translate the whole expression, using the pronoun to mean “him” generally and “it” where necessary: iubent.

3x. Iubent eum. “They order him.”

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4. Ducem servāvit.

4. He saved the leader.

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5. Ducī servīvit.

5. He served the leader.

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5a. Ducī servīvit. Explain the syntax of ducī.

5a. ducī is dative with a special verb.

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6. Servī aliīs hominibus serviunt.

6. Slaves serve other men.

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7. Virī fortēs aliōs servant.

7. Brave men save others.

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8. Ille servus fīliō meō servāvit et eum servāvit.

8. That slave served my son and saved him.

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8a. Ille servus fīliō meō servāvit et eum servāvit. Explain the syntax of eum.

8a. eum is accusative, object of servāvit.

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9. Sī quis sibi sōlī serviet, rem publicam numquam servābit.

9. If anyone serves himself alone, he will never save the republic.

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9a. Sī quis sibi sōlī serviet, rem publicam numquam servābit. Explain the syntax of sibi.

9a. sibi is dative with a special verb.

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10. Sī quis hunc labōrem suscēpisset, mīlle virō servāvisset.

10. If someone had undertaken this work, he would have saved a thousand men.

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11. Deī mihi ignōscent; vōs, ō cīvēs, tōtī exercituī ignōscite.

11. The gods will pardon me; you, O citizens, pardon the whole army.

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11a. Deī mihi ignōscent; vōs, ō cīvēs, tōtī exercituī ignōscite. Explain the syntax of exercituī.

11a. exercituī is dative with a special verb.

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12. Sī Deum nōbīs ignōscere volumus, nōs dēbēmus aliīs hominibus ignōscere.

12. If we want God to forgive us, we ought to forgive other men.

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12a Sī Deum nōbīs ignōscere volumus, nōs dēbēmus aliīs hominibus ignōscere. Explain the syntax of hominibus.

12a hominibus is dative with a special verb.

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13. Mihi nunc nōn crēdunt, neque umquam duōbus fīliīs meīs crēdere volent.

13. They do not trust me now, and they will never be willing to trust my two sons.

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13a. Mihi nunc nōn crēdunt, neque umquam duōbus fīliīs meīs crēdere volent. Explain the syntax of fīliīs.

13a. fīliīs is dative with a special verb.

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14. Illī amīcī sunt mihi cārissimī.

14. Those friends are very dear to me.

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14a. Illī amīcī sunt mihi cārissimī. Explain the syntax of mihi.

14a. mihi is dative with a special adjective.

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15. Cum bonā fidē carērēs, tibi crēdere nōn poterant.

15. Since you lacked good faith, they could not trust you.

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15a. Cum bonā fidē carērēs, tibi crēdere nōn poterant. Explain the syntax of fidē.

15a. fidē is ablative of separation.

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16. Huic ducī pāreāmus ut nōbīs parcat et urbem servet.

16. Let us obey this leader so that he may spare us and save the city.

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16a Huic ducī pāreāmus ut nōbīs parcat et urbem servet. Explain the syntax of ducī, pāreāmus, servet.

16a ducī is dative with a special verb; pāreāmus is present subjunctive, jussive; servet is present subjunctive in a purpose clause.

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17. Nisi Caesar cīvibus placēbit, vītae eius nōn parcent.

17. If Caesar does not please the citizens, they will not spare his life.

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17a. Nisi Caesar cīvibus placēbit, vītae eius nōn parcent. Explain the syntax of cīvibus, vitae.

17a. cīvibus is dative with a special verb; vitae is dative with a special verb.

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18. Litterīs Latīnīs studeō, quae mihi placent etiam sī amīcīs meīs persuadēre nōn possum.

18. I am studying Latin literature, which I like (pleases me) even if I cannot persuade my friends.

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18a. Litterīs Latīnīs studeō, quae mihi placent etiam sī amīcīs meīs persuadēre nōn possum. Explain the syntax of litterīs, amīcīs.

18a. litterīs is dative with a special verb; amīcīs is dative with a special verb.

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19. Vēritātī et sapientiae semper studeāmus et pāreāmus.

19. Let us always study and obey truth and wisdom.

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20. Optimīs rēbus semper studēte sī vērē esse fēlīcēs vultis.

20. Always study the best subjects if you wish to be truly happy.

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21. Hīs rebus studentēs, et librīs et vitā utāmur.

21. As we study these subjects, let us enjoy both books and life.

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21a. Hīs rebus studentēs, et librīs et vitā utāmur. Explain the syntax of rēbus, librīs, ūtāmur.

21a. rēbus is dative with a special verb; librīs is ablative with a special deponent verb; ūtāmur is present subjunctive, jussive.

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22. Vir bonus nēminī nocēre vult: omnibus parcit, omnēs iuvat.

22. A good man wishes to harm nobody; he spares all, he helps all.

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22a. Vir bonus nēminī nocēre vult: omnibus parcit, omnēs iuvat. Explain the syntax of omnibus.

22a. omnibus is dative with a special verb.

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23. Praemia mea sunt simillima tuīs.

23. My rewards are very similar to yours.

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23a. Praemia mea sunt simillima tuīs. Explain the syntax of tuīs.

23a. tuīs is dative with a special adjective.