Flashcards in 39a. Latin to English Deck (71)
1a. Define the term: gerund.
1a. The gerund is a verbal noun.
1b. What is the ending of the gerund in English?
1c. How is the gerund declined in Latin?
1c. The gerund is based on the future passive participle (e.g. laudandus, habendus, ducendus, audiendus, capiendus) but has only neuter singular forms in the oblique cases (gen. laudandī, dat. laudandō, acc. laudandum, abl. laudandō).
1d. As a noun, what is the syntax of the gerund in Latin?
1d. It is used as a noun, except not as a subject or direct object.
1e. What serves in the place of the nominative of the gerund in Latin?
1e. the infinitive.
2a. What part of speech is the Latin gerundive?
2a. a verbal adjective
2b. What mnemotic device may help you remember this?
2b. The gerundIVE is an adjectIVE.
2c. As an adjective, what is the syntax of the gerundive?
2c. As an adjective it modifies a noun or pronoun and agrees with that noun in gender, number, and case.
2d. How is the gerundive declined?
2d. The gerundive (e.g. laudandus, -a, -um) is declined like magnus, -a, -um.
2e. How can the gerundive be distinguished from the gerund in Latin usage (though not in English translation?)
2e. Since the gerund only has the endings -ī, -ō, -um, -ō, any feminine or any plural ending on an -nd- base is bound to indicate a gerundive; and also, if an -nd- form agrees with a noun as an adjectival modifier, it must be a gerundive.
3a. How is the Latin gerund to be translated?
3a. The Latin gerund is normally translated by the English gerund in -ing with any attending noun constructions or adverbial modifiers.
3b. How is a noun-gerunive phrase usually best translated?
3b. The gerundive is to be translated as if it were a gerund with an object and any adverbial modifiers. In other words, both the gerund and the gerundive are to be translated in the same way.
3c Translate: Discimus legendō cum cūrā (gerund).
3c We learn by reading with care.
3d. Translate: Discimus librīs legendīs cum cūrā (gerundive).
3d. We learn by reading books with care.
4. Experiendo discimus.
4. We learn by experiencing.
5. Ad discendum vēnērunt.
5. They came to learn (for learning).
6. Sē discendō dedit.
6. He gave (devoted) himself to learning.
7. Discendī causā ad lūdum tuum vēnērunt.
7. They came to school to learn (for the sake of learning).
8. Puer cupidus discendī ad lūdum iit.
8. The boy went to school desirous of learning (eager to learn).
9. Metus moriendī eum terrēbat.
9. The fear of dying kept terrifying him.
10. Spēs vivendī post mortem multōs hortātur.
10. The hope of living after death encourages many people.
11. Cōgitandō eōs superāvit.
11. By thinking (= by using his head) he overcame them.
12.1 Sē dedit glōriae quaerendae.
12.1 He devoted (gave) himself to seeking glory.
12.2 Sē dedit bellō gerendō.
12.2. He devoted (gave) himself to waging war.
12.3 Sē dedit pecūniae faciendae.
12.3 He devoted (gave) himself to making money.
12.4 Sē dedit imperiō accipiendō.
12.4 He devoted (gave) himself to getting power.
12.5 Sē dedit cīvitātibus dēlendīs.
12.5 He devoted (gave) himself to destroying states.
12.6 Sē dedit huic ducī sequendō.
12.6 He devoted (gave) himself to following this leader.
12.7. Sē dedit patriae servandae.
12.7. He devoted (gave) himself to saving his country.