Flashcards in 39a. Latin to English Deck (71):
1a. Define the term: gerund.
1a. The gerund is a verbal noun.
1b. What is the ending of the gerund in English?
1c. How is the gerund declined in Latin?
1c. The gerund is based on the future passive participle (e.g. laudandus, habendus, ducendus, audiendus, capiendus) but has only neuter singular forms in the oblique cases (gen. laudandī, dat. laudandō, acc. laudandum, abl. laudandō).
1d. As a noun, what is the syntax of the gerund in Latin?
1d. It is used as a noun, except not as a subject or direct object.
1e. What serves in the place of the nominative of the gerund in Latin?
1e. the infinitive.
2a. What part of speech is the Latin gerundive?
2a. a verbal adjective
2b. What mnemotic device may help you remember this?
2b. The gerundIVE is an adjectIVE.
2c. As an adjective, what is the syntax of the gerundive?
2c. As an adjective it modifies a noun or pronoun and agrees with that noun in gender, number, and case.
2d. How is the gerundive declined?
2d. The gerundive (e.g. laudandus, -a, -um) is declined like magnus, -a, -um.
2e. How can the gerundive be distinguished from the gerund in Latin usage (though not in English translation?)
2e. Since the gerund only has the endings -ī, -ō, -um, -ō, any feminine or any plural ending on an -nd- base is bound to indicate a gerundive; and also, if an -nd- form agrees with a noun as an adjectival modifier, it must be a gerundive.
3a. How is the Latin gerund to be translated?
3a. The Latin gerund is normally translated by the English gerund in -ing with any attending noun constructions or adverbial modifiers.
3b. How is a noun-gerunive phrase usually best translated?
3b. The gerundive is to be translated as if it were a gerund with an object and any adverbial modifiers. In other words, both the gerund and the gerundive are to be translated in the same way.
3c Translate: Discimus legendō cum cūrā (gerund).
3c We learn by reading with care.
3d. Translate: Discimus librīs legendīs cum cūrā (gerundive).
3d. We learn by reading books with care.
4. Experiendo discimus.
4. We learn by experiencing.
5. Ad discendum vēnērunt.
5. They came to learn (for learning).
6. Sē discendō dedit.
6. He gave (devoted) himself to learning.
7. Discendī causā ad lūdum tuum vēnērunt.
7. They came to school to learn (for the sake of learning).
8. Puer cupidus discendī ad lūdum iit.
8. The boy went to school desirous of learning (eager to learn).
9. Metus moriendī eum terrēbat.
9. The fear of dying kept terrifying him.
10. Spēs vivendī post mortem multōs hortātur.
10. The hope of living after death encourages many people.
11. Cōgitandō eōs superāvit.
11. By thinking (= by using his head) he overcame them.
12.1 Sē dedit glōriae quaerendae.
12.1 He devoted (gave) himself to seeking glory.
12.2 Sē dedit bellō gerendō.
12.2. He devoted (gave) himself to waging war.
12.3 Sē dedit pecūniae faciendae.
12.3 He devoted (gave) himself to making money.
12.4 Sē dedit imperiō accipiendō.
12.4 He devoted (gave) himself to getting power.
12.5 Sē dedit cīvitātibus dēlendīs.
12.5 He devoted (gave) himself to destroying states.
12.6 Sē dedit huic ducī sequendō.
12.6 He devoted (gave) himself to following this leader.
12.7. Sē dedit patriae servandae.
12.7. He devoted (gave) himself to saving his country.
12.8 Sē dedit pācī petendae.
12.8 He devoted (gave) himself to seeking peace.
12.9 Sē dedit iniūriīs oppugnandīs.
12.9 He devoted (gave) himself to attacking wrongs.
12.10 Sē dedit librīs scrībendīs.
12.10 He devoted (gave) himself to writing books.
12.11 Sē dedit librīs legendīs.
12.11 He devoted (gave) himself to reading books.
12.12 Sē dedit philosophiae discendae.
12.12 He devoted (gave) himself to learning philosophy.
12.13 Sē dedit litterīs Latīnīs discendīs.
12.13 He devoted (gave) himself to learning Latin literature.
12.14 Sē dedit vēritātī intellegendae.
12.14 He devoted (gave) himself to understanding the truth.
12.15 Sē dedit sapientiae quaerendae.
12.15 He devoted (gave) himself to seeking wisdom.
12.16 Sē dedit hominibus adiuvandīs.
12.16 He devoted (gave) himself to helping human beings.
13.1 Rōmam vēnit ad hoc opus suscipiendum.
13.1 He came to Rome to undertake this work.
13.2 Rōmam vēnit ad lūdōs Rōmānōs vivendōs.
13.2 He came to Rome to see the Roman games.
13.3 Rōmam vēnit ad aedificia vetera videnda.
13.3 He came to Rome to see the old buildings.
13.4 Rōmam vēnit ad pācem petendam.
13.4 He came to Rome to seek peace.
13.5 Rōmam vēnit huius operis suscipiendī causā.
13.5 He came to Rome for the sake of undertaking this work (to undertake ....)
13.6 Rōmam vēnit philosophiae discendae causā.
13.6 He came to Rome for the sake of learning philosophy (to learn ....)
13.7 Rōmam vēnit novōrum librōrum legendōrum causā.
13.7 He came to Rome for the sake of reading new books (to read ....)
13.8 Rōmam vēnit lūdōs vīsum.
13.8 He came to Rome to see the games.
14.1 Librum scrīpsit dē dolō ferendō.
14.1 He wrote a book about enduring pain.
14.2 Librum scrīpsit dē metū superandō.
14.2 He wrote a book about overcoming fear.
14.3 Librum scrīpsit dē bonā vītā vīvendā.
14.3 He wrote a book about living a good life.
14.4 Librum scrīpsit dē rē pūblicā gerendā.
14.4 He wrote a book about managing the state.
14.5 Librum scrīpsit dē bellō gerendō.
14.5 He wrote a book about waging war.
14.6 Librum scrīpsit philosophiae discendae causā.
14.6 He wrote a book about defending liberty.
14.7 Librum scrīpsit dē hostibus vincendīs.
14.7 He wrote a book about conquering the enemy.
14.8 Librum scrīpsit dē donīs dandīs.
14.8 He wrote a book about giving gifts.
15.1 Sapientiōrēs fīmus Latīnīs litterīs legendīs.
15.1 We become wiser by reading Latin literature.
15.2 Sapientiōrēs fīmus philosophiā discendā.
15.2 We become wiser by learning philosophy.
15.3 Sapientiōrēs fīmus vītā experiendā.
15.3 We become wiser by experiencing life.
15.4 Sapientiōrēs fīmus metū vincendō.
15.4 We become wiser by conquering fear.
15.5 Sapientiōrēs fīmus vēritāte sequendā.
15.5 We become wiser by following truth.
16.1 Nōs ipsōs adiuvāmus bonīs librīs semper legendīs.
16.1 We help our very selves by always reading good books.
16.2 Nōs ipsōs adiuvāmus virīs miserīs metū līberandīs.
16.2 We help our very selves by freeing unfortunate men from fear.
16.3 Nōs ipsōs adiuvāmus auxiliō offerendō.
16.3 We help our very selves by offering aid.
16.4 Nōs ipsōs adiuvāmus aliīs adiuvandīs.
16.4 We help our very selves by helping others.
17.1 Multum tempus cōnsūmpsit in cōgitandō.
17.1 He consumed much time in thinking.
17.1a Multum tempus cōnsūmpsit in loquendō.
17.1a. He consumed much time in speaking.
17.1b Multum tempus cōnsūmpsit in currendō.
17.1b He consumed much time in running.
17.2 Multum tempus cōnsūmpsit in hīs operibus faciendīs.
17.2 He consumed much time in doing these tasks.
17.3 Multum tempus cōnsūmpsit in viā inveniendā.
17.3 He consumed much time in finding the way.
17.4 Multum tempus cōnsūmpsit in exercitū parandō.
17.4 He consumed much time in preparing an army.
17.5 Multum tempus cōnsūmpsit in cōpiīs parandīs.
17.5 He consumed much time in preparing supplies (troops).