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Flashcards in 4, 5, 6 Deck (39)
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1

_______ - Incidence Antigens and corresponding antibodies make it very difficult to locate blood products for transfusion

High

2

Name three types of Antigen- Antibody reactions

Agglutination
Hemolysis
Precipitation

3

Define agglutination

Clumping of RBCs

4

What is agglutination caused by?

Antibodies bridges between antigens on different cells

5

Where can agglutination occur ?

In vitro/ in vivo

6

Agglutination is the end stage of most _________ reactions.

Ab/ Ag

7

Define hemolysis

rupturing (lysis) of RBCs

8

Where can hemolysis occur?

in vitro/ in vivo

9

Hemolysis is the endpoint for ____________ & _______________

Ag/ Ab reactions; blood bank/serology procedures

10

What is activated in order for hemolysis to occur? What is it activated by?

Complement; is activated by IgM or IgG Antibodies

11

Define precipitation.

Formation of insoluble, usually visible, complex between soluble Ab and soluble Ag

12

In precipitation a positive reaction appears as __________________.

Ring or sediment

13

Precipitation is the endpoint in _____________________________.

immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis

14

What two reactions are transfusion services primarily concerned with?

Agglutination and hemolysis reactions

15

What are the two stages of agglutination?

Sensitization and Agglutination

16

What is sensitization?

1st stage: Ab attaches to Ag on RBC membrane

17

What is agglutination?

2nd stage: formation of bridges between sensitized RBCs to form a lattice

18

What factors affect the first stage of agglutination? ( there are seven)

1. Equilibrium constant
2. Antibody
3. Temperature
4. pH
5. Incubation time
6. Ionic Strength
7. Ag/ Ab proportions

19

What is the proper testing for routine blood bank testing?

Clotted/anticoagulated

20

What information must be on a sample used for blood bank testing?

Patient assession number, test being performed and date of collection

21

May hemolyzed specimen be used for routine blood bank testing? Explain.

No, because hemolysis is considered a positive reaction

22

Antibodies to ABO blood group antigens are usually...
A) autoimmune
B) naturally occurring

B)

23

Generally, at what temperature do ABO antibodies best react?

Room temp

24

ABO Antibodies are generally ____ antibodies the do not cross the placenta and can bind complement.

IgM

25

What is the purpose of the Rh control?

To rule out pseudo agglutination for patients that are AB Positive

26

What reaction agglutinates predominantly in the lower half of gel microtube?

1+

27

What reaction agglutinates dispersely throughout length of gel column?

2+

28

What reaction does the majority of the cell agglutinates get trapped in upper half of gel microtube?

3+

29

What reaction is there a solid band of cell agglutinates on top of the gel?

4+

30

Why is ABO serum grouping not performed on cord blood specimens?

Cord blood has Wharton’s jelly and will interfere with protein in blood

31

In the serum of group A individual what antibodies are expected to be detected?

Anti B

32

In the serum of a group B individual, what antibodies are expected to be detected?

Anti A

33

In the serum of a group O individual, what antibodies are expected to be detected?

Anti A, Anti B, Anti AB

34

how would you differentiate between a group A1 person and a group A2 person?

Anti A1 Lectin

35

If the ABO groups of the parents are both O, what are the possible ABO types for their offspring?

O

36

If the ABO groups of the parents are both A, what are the possible ABO types for the offspring?

A or O

37

If one parent is group A and the other parent is Group B, what are the possible ABO types for the children?

A, B, AB, O

38

If one parent is Group B and the other is Group O ,what are the possible ABO types for the children?

B or O

39

What antigens does Bombay blood type lack?

H antigen, A antigen and B antigen