Flashcards in 4.3 lect - ct cells derived from the PHC - Rushmore Deck (81)
peyer's patches =
aggregated lymph nodules in the ileum (last third of small intestine)
T/F mast cells and eosinophils can be found in epithelia
false - connective tissue, not epithelia
what is the appearance of a mast cell
-nucleus: round with rim of heterochromatin and central nucleoulus (like eye or target)
-cytoplasm: eosinophilic or basophilic granules
what is the appearance of an eosinophil
-nucleus: lobed (2-3) and heterochromatic
-cytoplasm: eosinophilic granules
how many lobes in an eosinophil nucleus?
how can you tell a mast cell and an eosinophil apart?
eosinophil = lobed nucleus and slightly smaller cell
mast cell = circular nucleus and slightly larger cell
the term for the passage of blood cells through intact capillary walls, typically accompanying inflammation
passage of blood cells through intact capillary walls, typically accompanying inflammation
serum + clotting factors
another name for thrombocyte
another name for platelet
what is the precurser to a macrophage
a monocyte becomes a __
monocytes are found...
macrophages are found...
-circulating in blood
-in connective tissue
since many macrophages exist in tissue-specific forms, they are collectively known as...
mononuclear phagocytic system
these WBCs are capable of chemotaxis
how do neutrophils kill phagocytosed microorganisms?
a respiratory burst reaction
rapid release of reactive superoxides and peroxides
this WBC is spcialized to kill phagocytosed microorganisms through a respiratory burst reaction
how to tell tendon from skeletal muscle
skeletal muscle has striations
how to tell unilocular adipocytes from capillaries
unilocular adipocytes rarely occur alone, they occur in clumps
what cell type manufactures the basement membrane
how many different types of granules are contained within neutrophils
the 3 granule types in a neutrophil are termed:
neutrophil extracellular traps
neutrophil response to invasion by dying and extravisation of stranded chromosomal material, which double as bacteriotoxic agents when extracellular
mast cells contain what key proteins?
histamine - inflammatory mediator
heparin - anticoagulant
mast cells are functionally similar to __, but in appearance more similar to __
functionally similar to basophils
similar to eosinophils in appearance
this leukocyte mediates allergic responses
this leukocyte functions as an antihelminthic
helminthic refers to...
eosinophil granules contain...
including major basic protein
major basic protein is found in granules of which granulocyte
this leukocyte functions in adaptive immune reponse
this leukocyte works via antigen-antibody recognition
antibody producing B-cells are termed...
this lymphocyte recognizes self from non-self through MHC-molecule recognition
how do T-cells recognize self from non-self
through MHC (major histocompatibility complex) recognition via T-cell receptor
what are the two main subdivisions of lymphocytes
what cell type makes type IV collagen?
epithelial cells (not fibroblasts)
-type IV collagen forms lamina densa of basement membrane
what do panneth cells look like?
occasional highly eosinophilic cells that can be found in epithelia / gland lumens secreting intimicrobials
name 4 defensive properties of epithelia
-terminal bar / junctional complex is a strong structural barrier
-pathogen may have to negotiate several layers of epithelium
-antimicrobial secretions (e.g. low pH in stomach, antimicrobial peptides in saliva)
-connective tissue barrier (basal lamina)
when a pathogen breaches an epithelial barrier, it usually finds itself in...
connective tissue proper
what is the primary function of loose connective tissue and how is it reflected in composition?
-high cellularity, low fibrillarity
identify a macrophage
-phagocytic vacuoles inside (apparent on both LM and VM) - most defining characteristic
technique used by scientists to identify macrophages, yakuza for tatoos
-non-degradable dye injected into connective tissue and taken up by macrophages for visualization
what are 3 stages of phagocytosis?
-phago-lysosome fusion and digestion
what initiates an inflammatory response?
macrophage binding / phagocytosis of pathogen and release of cytokines
4 classical signs of inflammation
calor - heat
rubor - redness
tumor - swelling
dolor - pain
non-specific response to damage or invaders is termed
innate immune response
what is another term for inflammatory response
innate immune response
what is another term for innate immune response
how specific is the inflammatory response
2 components of inflammatory response are:
vascular inflammatory response in 3 steps
-cytokines cause vasodilation of arterioles in area to increase blood flow (calor, rubor)
-cytokines increase permeability of blood vessels by disrupting intercellular linkages (tumor - edema)
-this slows the blood and allows RBCs and WBCs to contact the endothelium
where do neutrophils usually reside?
in the blood, unless called into connective tissue
T/F neutrophil nuclei are lobed
true - 2-5 lobes
how many lobes are there in a neutrophil nucleus?
what are the 3 classes of neutrophil granules and what are their respective functions?
primary (philic) - lysosomes
secondary (specific) - antimicrobial
tertiary - gelatinase/cathepsin/collagenase (proteases)
why are neutrophil nuclei likely lobed?
to squeeze through endothelial spaces in diapedesis
name 5 steps of the cellular inflammatory response
-margination and binding
including 3 vascular and 5 cellular steps, describe the inflammatory response in 8 steps
-slowing of blood flow
-margination and binding
once the vascular inflammatory response allows blood flow to slow in the inflamed area, what is the first step of the cellular inflammatory response?
margination and binding
-neutrophils pushed to side (marginated) by slowing of blood
-endothelial cells express selectin receptors in response to cytokines
-neutrophil selectins bind to endothelial selectin receptors, which slows and stops neutrophil
-neutrophil binds to integrin receptors
in the cellular inflammatory response, selectins...
expressed on neutrophils bind selectin receptors in endothelium to slow and stop the neutrophil flowing past in blood, so it can bind integrin receptors and undergo diapedesis
in the cellular inflammatory response, integrins...
expressed on neutrophils bind integrin receptors in endothelium to undergo diapedesis (after selectin receptors have stopped the neutrophil)
after margination and binding, what is the next step in the cellular inflammatory response?
-neutrophils squeeze through basal lamina
-migrate to source of cytokines
-secrete tertiary granule contents (cathepsins, gelatinases, collagenases) to get past barriers present in ground substance
which granule contents do migrating neutrophils secrete in order to get past barriers present in ground substance?
tertiary - cathepsins, gelatinases, collagenases
(primary is lysosomal, secondary is antimicrobial)
what happens when neutrophil reaches source of cytokines?
attacks pathogen with respiratory blast
(release lysosomal and antimicrobial contents of primary (philic) and secondary (specific) granules i believe...)
after 1st wave neutrophil response, what does the second wave of the cellular inflammatory response consist of?
monocytes enter tissue and transform into macrophages
which leukocytes are considered "fast-acting" in the cellular inflammatory response?
-invade quickly and reach peak concentration after ~24 hours
-1 shot and dead when lysosome expended
how long does it take neutrophils to reach peak concentration during the cellular inflammatory response?
how long does it take macrophages to reach peak concentration during the cellular inflammatory response?
when do monocytes transform into macrophages?
when they reach the pathogen or source of the cytokines
which leukocyte is 1-shot and dead in the cellular inflammatory response?
dead when lysosome expended
(pus = dead neutrophils)
what is largely the content of pus?
how long do macrophages hang around?
a long time
(not 1 and done like neutrophils)
what is the recovery process from inflammation?
-cytokines dissipate (invader neutralized so no longer activating macrophage)
-permeability of blood vessels return to normal
-macrophage ingests extracellular fragments, dead neutrophils
-excess tissue fluid and macrophages enter lymph system
what is the source of cytokines that initiates the inflammatory response?
macrophage (in response to an invader)
when does the cytokine release instigating an inflammatory response cease?
when the invader is neutralized and no longer activating macrophages to release cytokines
what causes vasodilation during the inflammatory response?
cytokines released by macrophage at site of invader