4.3 lect - ct cells derived from the PHC - Rushmore Flashcards Preview

COT 1 (WPH) > 4.3 lect - ct cells derived from the PHC - Rushmore > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.3 lect - ct cells derived from the PHC - Rushmore Deck (81)
1

peyer's patches =

aggregated lymph nodules in the ileum (last third of small intestine)

2

T/F mast cells and eosinophils can be found in epithelia

false - connective tissue, not epithelia

3

what is the appearance of a mast cell

-nucleus: round with rim of heterochromatin and central nucleoulus (like eye or target)
-cytoplasm: eosinophilic or basophilic granules

4

what is the appearance of an eosinophil

-nucleus: lobed (2-3) and heterochromatic
-cytoplasm: eosinophilic granules

5

how many lobes in an eosinophil nucleus?

2-3

6

how can you tell a mast cell and an eosinophil apart?

eosinophil = lobed nucleus and slightly smaller cell
mast cell = circular nucleus and slightly larger cell

7

the term for the passage of blood cells through intact capillary walls, typically accompanying inflammation

diapedesis

8

diapedesis

passage of blood cells through intact capillary walls, typically accompanying inflammation

9

plasma =

serum + clotting factors

10

another name for thrombocyte

platelet

11

another name for platelet

thrombocyte

12

what is the precurser to a macrophage

monocyte

13

a monocyte becomes a __

macrophage

14

monocytes are found...
macrophages are found...

-circulating in blood
-in connective tissue

15

since many macrophages exist in tissue-specific forms, they are collectively known as...

mononuclear phagocytic system

16

these WBCs are capable of chemotaxis

neutrophils

17

how do neutrophils kill phagocytosed microorganisms?

a respiratory burst reaction
rapid release of reactive superoxides and peroxides

18

this WBC is spcialized to kill phagocytosed microorganisms through a respiratory burst reaction

neutrophil

19

how to tell tendon from skeletal muscle

skeletal muscle has striations

20

how to tell unilocular adipocytes from capillaries

unilocular adipocytes rarely occur alone, they occur in clumps

21

what cell type manufactures the basement membrane

epithelial cells
(not fibroblasts!)

22

how many different types of granules are contained within neutrophils

3
philic (primary)
specific (secondary)
tertiary

23

the 3 granule types in a neutrophil are termed:

philic (primary)
specific (secondary)
tertiary

24

NETosis =

neutrophil extracellular traps
neutrophil response to invasion by dying and extravisation of stranded chromosomal material, which double as bacteriotoxic agents when extracellular

25

mast cells contain what key proteins?

histamine - inflammatory mediator
heparin - anticoagulant

26

histamine

inflammatory mediator

27

heparin

anticoagulant

28

mast cells are functionally similar to __, but in appearance more similar to __

functionally similar to basophils
similar to eosinophils in appearance

29

this leukocyte mediates allergic responses

eosinophil

30

this leukocyte functions as an antihelminthic

eosinophil

31

helminthic refers to...

parasite worms

32

eosinophil granules contain...

cationic proteins
including major basic protein

33

major basic protein is found in granules of which granulocyte

eosinophil

34

this leukocyte functions in adaptive immune reponse

lymphocyte

35

this leukocyte works via antigen-antibody recognition

B-lymphocytes

36

antibody producing B-cells are termed...

plasma cells

37

this lymphocyte recognizes self from non-self through MHC-molecule recognition

T-cells

38

how do T-cells recognize self from non-self

through MHC (major histocompatibility complex) recognition via T-cell receptor

39

what are the two main subdivisions of lymphocytes

B-cells
T-cells

40

what cell type makes type IV collagen?

epithelial cells (not fibroblasts)
-type IV collagen forms lamina densa of basement membrane

41

what do panneth cells look like?

occasional highly eosinophilic cells that can be found in epithelia / gland lumens secreting intimicrobials

42

name 4 defensive properties of epithelia

-terminal bar / junctional complex is a strong structural barrier
-pathogen may have to negotiate several layers of epithelium
-antimicrobial secretions (e.g. low pH in stomach, antimicrobial peptides in saliva)
-connective tissue barrier (basal lamina)

43

when a pathogen breaches an epithelial barrier, it usually finds itself in...

connective tissue proper

44

what is the primary function of loose connective tissue and how is it reflected in composition?

defense
-high cellularity, low fibrillarity

45

identify a macrophage

-euchromatic nucleus
-eosinophilic cytoplasm
-phagocytic vacuoles inside (apparent on both LM and VM) - most defining characteristic

46

supervital stain

technique used by scientists to identify macrophages, yakuza for tatoos
-non-degradable dye injected into connective tissue and taken up by macrophages for visualization

47

what are 3 stages of phagocytosis?

-recognition
-phagosome
-phago-lysosome fusion and digestion

48

what initiates an inflammatory response?

macrophage binding / phagocytosis of pathogen and release of cytokines

49

4 classical signs of inflammation

calor - heat
rubor - redness
tumor - swelling
dolor - pain

50

non-specific response to damage or invaders is termed

inflammatory response
-or-
innate immune response

51

what is another term for inflammatory response

innate immune response

52

what is another term for innate immune response

inflammatory response

53

how specific is the inflammatory response

non-specific

54

2 components of inflammatory response are:

vascular response
cellular response

55

vascular inflammatory response in 3 steps

-cytokines cause vasodilation of arterioles in area to increase blood flow (calor, rubor)
-cytokines increase permeability of blood vessels by disrupting intercellular linkages (tumor - edema)
-this slows the blood and allows RBCs and WBCs to contact the endothelium

56

where do neutrophils usually reside?

in the blood, unless called into connective tissue

57

T/F neutrophil nuclei are lobed

true - 2-5 lobes

58

how many lobes are there in a neutrophil nucleus?

2-5

59

what are the 3 classes of neutrophil granules and what are their respective functions?

primary (philic) - lysosomes
secondary (specific) - antimicrobial
tertiary - gelatinase/cathepsin/collagenase (proteases)

60

why are neutrophil nuclei likely lobed?

to squeeze through endothelial spaces in diapedesis

61

name 5 steps of the cellular inflammatory response

-margination and binding
-diapedesis
-neutrophilic wave
-monocytic wave
-recovery

62

including 3 vascular and 5 cellular steps, describe the inflammatory response in 8 steps

-vasodilation
-edema
-slowing of blood flow
-margination and binding
-diapedesis
neutrophilic wave
-monocytic wave
-recover

63

once the vascular inflammatory response allows blood flow to slow in the inflamed area, what is the first step of the cellular inflammatory response?

margination and binding
-neutrophils pushed to side (marginated) by slowing of blood
-endothelial cells express selectin receptors in response to cytokines
-neutrophil selectins bind to endothelial selectin receptors, which slows and stops neutrophil
-neutrophil binds to integrin receptors

64

in the cellular inflammatory response, selectins...

expressed on neutrophils bind selectin receptors in endothelium to slow and stop the neutrophil flowing past in blood, so it can bind integrin receptors and undergo diapedesis

65

in the cellular inflammatory response, integrins...

expressed on neutrophils bind integrin receptors in endothelium to undergo diapedesis (after selectin receptors have stopped the neutrophil)

66

after margination and binding, what is the next step in the cellular inflammatory response?

diapedesis
-neutrophils squeeze through basal lamina
-migrate to source of cytokines
-secrete tertiary granule contents (cathepsins, gelatinases, collagenases) to get past barriers present in ground substance

67

which granule contents do migrating neutrophils secrete in order to get past barriers present in ground substance?

tertiary - cathepsins, gelatinases, collagenases
(primary is lysosomal, secondary is antimicrobial)

68

what happens when neutrophil reaches source of cytokines?

attacks pathogen with respiratory blast
(release lysosomal and antimicrobial contents of primary (philic) and secondary (specific) granules i believe...)

69

after 1st wave neutrophil response, what does the second wave of the cellular inflammatory response consist of?

monocytes enter tissue and transform into macrophages

70

which leukocytes are considered "fast-acting" in the cellular inflammatory response?

neutrophils
-invade quickly and reach peak concentration after ~24 hours
-1 shot and dead when lysosome expended

71

how long does it take neutrophils to reach peak concentration during the cellular inflammatory response?

~24 hours

72

how long does it take macrophages to reach peak concentration during the cellular inflammatory response?

~36-48 hours

73

when do monocytes transform into macrophages?

when they reach the pathogen or source of the cytokines

74

which leukocyte is 1-shot and dead in the cellular inflammatory response?

neutrophil
dead when lysosome expended
(pus = dead neutrophils)

75

what is largely the content of pus?

dead neutrophils

76

how long do macrophages hang around?

a long time
(not 1 and done like neutrophils)

77

what is the recovery process from inflammation?

-cytokines dissipate (invader neutralized so no longer activating macrophage)
-permeability of blood vessels return to normal
-macrophage ingests extracellular fragments, dead neutrophils
-excess tissue fluid and macrophages enter lymph system

78

what is the source of cytokines that initiates the inflammatory response?

macrophage (in response to an invader)

79

when does the cytokine release instigating an inflammatory response cease?

when the invader is neutralized and no longer activating macrophages to release cytokines

80

what causes vasodilation during the inflammatory response?

cytokines released by macrophage at site of invader

81

* must finish, stopped at "recovery from inflammation" on p. 4 of lecture slides

* must finish, stopped at "recovery from inflammation" on p. 4 of lecture slides