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Flashcards in 5/14 Deck (74)
1

How do people get hydatid cyts

Infection w/ echinococcus granulosos from "intimate contact with dogs"

2

Dysentary + RUQ pain and single cyst + Mexico

Entamoeba histolytic causing amebic liver abscess

3

Viral arthritis features

Symmetrical + Fever that goes away in 2 months
Can have ANA and RF +

4

When is arrest of labor is the first stage diagnosed

> 6cm dilation w/ ruptured membranes in the setting of no cervical change for .4 hours w/ adequate contractions OR
when no cervical change for >6 hours with inadequate contractions

5

What is pitocin for

Helping contraction strength

6

PCP cxr

Bilateral diffuse interstitial infiltrates beginning the in perihilar region

7

Triad of biliary cysts

1. Abdominal pain
2. Jaundice
3. RUQ palpable mass

8

What is peak airway pressure the sum of

Airway resistance and plateau pressure
(Plateau pressure is the sum of the elastic pressure and PEEP)

9

Amp + Gent has good synergism for what

Gram-neg aerobes (for abdominal infections in combo w/ metronidazole)

10

Lambert-Eaton occurs w/ what lung Ca

Small cell

11

Severe bipolar episode tx

Lithium or valproate + Atypical antipsychotic

12

What causes bowel ischemia post AAA repair

Inadequate colonic collateral arterial perfusion to the left and sigmoid colon after loss of IMA during aortic graft placement

13

MCC of urinary retention in older men

Bladder outlet obstruction du eto BPH

14

First step in workup of thyroid nodule

TSH and thyroid US

15

3 suspicious US features of thyroid nodules

1. Hypoechoic
2. Microcalcifications
3. Interval vascularity

16

MC brachial plexus injury in delivery

Erb-Duchennes (C5-C7)

17

Type of anemia Isoniazid causes

Sideroblastic

18

Empiric meningitis tx

Vanc + Third gen cef

19

What causes biliary stasis in TPN

Normal stimulus for CCK release and gallbladder contraction is absent (proteins and FA in duodenum)

20

Prevalence effect on PPV and NPV

Inc prevalence inc PPV and dec NPV (and opposite for dec prev effect)

21

Why is are the Ab in celiac disease often absent

Many celiac patients have selective IgA def

22

Drugs that can cause IIH

GH, Tetracyclines, and excessive vitamins A and its derivatives (isotretinoin, ATRA)

23

Two types of murmurs usually due to underlying pathologic cause

Diastolic and continuous

24

Triad of HHS

1. AMS
2. Volume depletion
3. Polyuria

25

How can thiazide diuretics precipitate HHS

Reducing intravascular volume, which decreases GFR and activates counter-regulatory hormones

26

MCC of LE edema

Venous valvular incompetence

27

What are lewy bodies

Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions representing adulation of alpha-synuclein protein

28

Gluose-6-phosphatase def features

Doll like face, thin extremities, short stature, and protuberant abdomen

29

How does bronchiectasis present

Cough, mucopurent sputum, and hemoptysis that often responds to antibiotics

30

Next line for kids who pee at night when desmopressin doesn't work

TCAs (imipramine, amitriptyline, despramine)

31

First abnormalities seen in a metabolically compromised fetus

Absent breathing movements and decelerations, followed by decreased body movements and fetal tone

32

First line tx for adolescents w/ acute abnormal bleeding

High dose estrogen

33

When do CF gets get pseudomonas

High chloride concentration and defective mucociliar clearance

34

MCC of CF related pneumonia in infants and young children

S. aureus

35

What usually parallels severity of CHF and is an independent predictor of poor outcome

Hyponatremia

36

Triad of RCC

1. Flank pain
2. Hematuria
3. Palpable abdominal renal mass

37

Why varicoceles in RCC

Fail to empty when pt stands due to tumor obstruction of the gonadal vein where it enters the renal vein

38

What rapidly reverses warfarin

Prothrombin-complex concentrate

39

First line tx for OCD

SSRIs or clomipramine

40

What causes outflow obstruction in HCM

Septal hypertrophy and abnormal anterior motion of the mitral valve

41

What is elevated in B12 and folate def

Homocysteine

42

What suggests meningioma

Extra-axial well circumscribed dural based mass that is partially calcified on imaging

43

Angiodysplasia characterized by

Dilated submucosa veins and AV malformations

44

3 Things angiodysplasia is common with

1. Advanced renal dz
2. WVD
3. Aortic stenosis

45

Osteoporosis screen

DEXA scan in all women above 65

46

How does CMV retinitis present

Yellowish-white patches of retinal opacification and retinal hemorrhages

47

Ocular toxo in AIDs pt's typically

Severe necrotizing retinochoroiditis

48

How does HIV retinopathy present

Benign, cotton wool spots in the retina which remit spontaneously

49

3 cardinal signs of PD

Rest tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia

50

Acute epididymitis in older male likely

Gram neg rods (E. coli)
Usually STDs in younger males

51

Hallmark of ichthyosis

Dry and rough skin with horny plates over the extensor surfaces of the limbs

52

What is tick borne paralysis characterized by

Rapidly ascending paralysis, no fever or sensory abnormalities, and normal CSF exam

53

What is postcholecystecomy syndrome

Persistant abdominal pain or dyspepsia months to years after
US followed by ERCP

54

what causes hypotension after an epidural

Blood redistribution to the lower extremities and venous pooling from sympathetic blockade

55

Features of low back pain suggesting an inflammatory cuase

Gradual onset of pain
Onset at age

56

Complications of cryptorchidism

1. Inguinal hernia
2. Testicular torsion
3. Subfertility
4. Testicular cancer
(surgery decreases the risk of the last two but doesn't eliminate)

57

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome dx criteria

1. BMI > 30
2. Awake daytime PaCO2 > 45
3. No alternate cause of hypoventilation

58

Drug for intermittent claudication

Cilostazol

59

Post seizure anion gap result of?

Transient elevation in lactic acid

60

What is considered in hepatic hydrothorax refractory to diureticcs

TIPS

61

Hypokalemia EKG

1. U waves
2. Flat and broad T waves
3. Premature ventricular beats

62

What is a hordeolum

Abscess located over the upper eyelid

63

What is a chalazion

Chronic granulomatous inflammation of the meibomian gland that appears as a hard, painless lid nodule

64

What causes pancytopenia in Lupus

Peripheral immune mediated destruction of all 3 cell lines

65

How do anticholinergic meds cause urinary retention

Failure of detrusor contraction

66

What causes primary dysmenorrhea

Increased prostaglandins release from endometrial sloughing during menses

67

Indicators of severe asthma attack

Normalizing Pco2
Speech difficulty
Diaphoresis
Altered sensorium, cyanosis, and silent lungs

68

Why won't atropine inc HR in a patient that is brain dead

Vagal control of the heart is lost

69

What may still be functioning in brain death

Spinal cord --> may be able to see DTRs

70

What does flattening of the diaphragm do

Increase work of breathing

71

How do psoas abscesses commonly present

Sub acutely w/ fever and lower abdominal flank pain radiating to the groin

72

What arrhythmia does digitalis cause

Atrial tachycardia with AV block (from increased ectopy and increased vagal tone combining)

73

Hypoalbuminemia effect on calcium

Calcium decreases by 0.8 for every 1 dec in Albumin

74

Most common malignancy of the lower lip

Squamous cell
(Basal is upper lip)