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Flashcards in 4/31-5/1 Deck (62)
1

Important AE of buproprion

Decreases seizure threshold
*esp Anorexia pt's with electrolyte abnormalities*

2

Acute glaucoma drugs

Mannitol, acetazolamide, pilocarpine, or timolol

3

MCC of aortic dissection

Hypertension

4

Marfan's mutation

Fibrillin

5

How high can the diaphragm go during expiration

As high as 4th thoracic dermatome on right and 5th on the left (nipples)

6

Lithium tx timeline guidlines

1 year after first episode of Bipolar
If more than two consider years, if not lifetime

7

How is a complete mole formed

When 2 sperm fertilize an ovum lacking genetic material --> no fetal tissue

8

How can a molar pregnancy use bilateral ovarian enlargement

2/2 hyperstimulation and ovarian cyst formation (theca lutein cysts)

9

Type 2 DM dx criteria

-FPG > 126 x2
-A1C > 6.5%
-2 hr OGTT > 200
-Random plasma glucose > 200

10

Acid-Base status of hypertrophic pyloric stneosis

Hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic acidosis

11

Vitamin that helps with measles

Vitamin A

12

Why make sure you give iron with Epo

Epo-induced surge in RBC production can precipitate an iron-deficient state

13

Posterior vermis syndrome main feature

Truncal dystaxia

14

OA features on hand

Prominent osteophytes at DIP (heberden nodes) and PIP (bouchard nodes)

15

Why no furosemide for kidney stones

Can promote calciuria

16

When does tamsulosin act

On the distal ureter, lowering muscle tone and reducing reflex ureteral spasm

17

Most distinguishing feature of bath salt use

Prolonged duration of the effect

18

What is interstitial cystitis

"Painful bladder syndrome" --> worse by bladder filling and relieved by voiding
*will also see urinary urgency, frequency, and chronic pelvic pain*

19

MCC of cor pulomale (besides left heart failure)

COPD

20

CXR of cor pulmonale

Enlarged central pulmonary arteries and loss of retrosternal air space due to RVH

21

What is pulsus paradoxus

> 10 mm Hg decrease in systemic blood pressure with inspiration

22

2 major products of fires in closed spaces

Hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide

23

Cyanide tox tx

Hydroxocobalmin or sodium thiosulfate

24

What causes methemoglobinemia

Exposure to oxidizing agents (dapsone, nitrates, topical/local anesthetics)

25

Biopsy of UC shows

Mucosal inflammation and crypt abscesses

26

Also suspect tropical sprue in what patients

Living in tropical areas and having diarrhea for more than one month

27

Biopsy of tropical sprue

Blunting of villi with chronic inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils)

28

What is Rotor's syndrome

Chronic hyperbilirubinemia due to a defect in hepatic secretion of conjugated bill into biliary system

29

Tx for premature atrial contractions (symptomatic)

Beta blockers

30

Positive bronchodilator response criteria

> 12% increase in FEV1

31

Suspect hUS in who

A child who has recently recovered from a diarrheal illness and presents with acute renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, fever, thrombocytopenia and smear with schistocytes

32

McCune-Albright features

Precocious puberty, cafe au last spots and multiple bone defects (polyostotic fibrous dysplasia)

33

Puetz-Jeghers featuers

GI tract polyposis and mucocutaneous pigmentation
*can have estrogen secreting tumor*

34

Suspect what in basilar prominent COPD

Alpha-1 antitrypsin disease

35

What do statins dec that may lead to myopathy

Coenzyme Q10 synthesis

36

Cauda equina vs Conus medullarus syndrome

Cauda: all lower motor neuron signs
Conus: Upper and lower motor neuron signs

37

How can GERD make asthma worse

Exacerbates airflow obstruction through increased vagal tone, heightened bronchial reactivity, and micro aspiration of gastric contents into upper airway

38

Osteomyelitis + Sickle Cell

Salmonella

39

Pelvis US of septic abortion

Retained products of conception, increased vascularity, echogenic material in the cavity, and thick endometrial stripe

40

What causes placenta accreta

When uterine villi attach directly to the myometrium instead of the decidua

41

Placenta accreta risk factors

1. Prior C-sectio
2. Hx of d/c
3. Age >35

42

US of placenta accreta

Intraplacental villous lakes and absence of placental-myometrial interface

43

COC prevent what cancers

Endometrial and ovarian
*Also decrease risk of benign breast disease*

44

Tamoxifen MOA

Estrogen antagonist in breast
Agonist at uterus and bone

45

C1 inhibitor def leads toe elevated levels of

C2b and bradykinin

46

Janeway lesions vs Osler nodes

Janeway - non-tender on palms and soles
Osler- painful and purple on fingertips and toes

47

Cat scratch disease tx

Oral azithromycin

48

Most common predisposing factor to orbital cellulitis

Bacterial sinusitis

49

DM + Odd eye infection

Rhizopus causing mucormycosis

50

Most common congenital cyanotic heart disease? Characteristic findings?

Transposition of the great vessels
Findings: single S2 and narrow mediastinum (egg on a string)

51

Pagets tx

Bisphosphonates: inhibit osteoclasts to suppress bone turnover

52

Metabolic syndrome risks with what anti-psychotics

Olanzapine and clozapine
*do routine fasting glucose and lipids*

53

MEN 2A vs 2B

2A: Medullary TC, Pheo, PTH hyperplasia
2B: MTC, Pheo, and mucosal/interstinal neuromas and marfinoid habitus

54

A-a gradient

P(A)O2- P(a) O2

55

Class 1C drugs and features

Flecanide and propafenone (a-fib drugs)
In patients with faster HR, have "use dependence", where QRS is widened

56

Digoxin MOA

Inhibits ATP-ase and inc intracellular Na, causing inc Ca
Also enhances vagal tone

57

Cause of coarctation of the aorta

Thickening of the tunica media near the junction of ductus arterioles and aortic arch

58

When can you hear an S4

Pt's with decreased LV compliance

59

Why can O2 make COPD worse

Increased dead space perfusion causing V/Q mismatch, decreasing affinity of oxyhemoglobin for CO2, and reduced alveolar ventilation

60

TF, breath sounds and percussion on PE patient

TF decreased
BS decreased
Percussion dull

61

CXR of pneumonia vs effusion

PNA would not cause blinding of the costophrenic angles

62

Analgesic nephropathy types

MC papillary necrosis and chronic tubulointersitial nephritis