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Flashcards in 5.1 lect - bone & cartilage Deck (95)
1

cartilage and bone are derived from the __, which is derived from the __

mesenchyme
mesoderm

2

3 regions of long bone

epiphysis - head
metaphysis - neck
diaphysis - shaft

3

macroscopic descriptions of bone

compact
spongy (cancellous)

4

microscopic descriptions of bone

woven
lamellar
-appositional
-haversian

5

outer surface of bone

periosteum

6

inner surface of bone

endosteum

7

T/F all bone surfaces are lined with cells

true

8

what are the two layers of periosteum?

outer fibrous
inner cellular

9

how is bone prepared in a histological section?

demineralized
soft tissues removed

10

what is the name for circular bone structure

osteon or
haversian system

11

what are two types of lamellar bone growth?

haversian growth (concentric rings)
apositional growth (sheets)

12

what embryonic tissues does bone come from?

-axial skeleton - sclerotome (somites, paraxial mesoderm)
-appendicular skeleton + sternum - somatic mesoderm (lateral plate mesoderm)
-facial bones, parts of skull, clavicle - neural crest cells (ectomesenchyme)

13

what embryonic tissue does most of the axial skeleton come from (except sternum, facial and some other bones of skull) ?

sclerotome
(somites, paraxial mesoderm)

14

what embryonic tissue does most of the appendicular skeleton and sternum come from (except clavicle) ?

somatic mesoderm
(lateral plate mesoderm)

15

what embryonic tissue do the clavicle and facial bones come from ?

neural crest cells
(ectomesenchyme)

16

how is intramembranous bone formed?

begins with a fibrous layer and bone is made directly (no cartilage intermediate)

17

how is endochondral bone formed?

shape made from hyaline cartilage, then turned into bone with osteocytes and vascularization

18

what are two types of initial bone development?

intramembranous (fibrous layer - bone)
endochondral (hyaline cartilage shape - bone)

19

what kinds of bones develop by endochondral ossification?

extremeties and weight bearing bones of axial skeleton

20

what kinds of bones develop by intramembranous ossification?

flat bones of face and skull, mandible, clavicle

21

mesenchyme

part of embryonic mesoderm that develops into connective tissues and other important tissues

22

appositional growth

growth on an existing surface. surrounding mesenchyme gives rise to osteoprogenitor cells that come into contact with initially formed bone and differentiate into bone producing cells

23

what does the axial skeleton include

spine, ribs, skull

24

is the shoulder girdle part of the axial or appendicular skeleton?

appendicular

25

is the pelvic girdle part of the axial or appendicular skeleton?

appendicular

26

bone collar

layer of bone around diaphysis of a cartilage model of developing bone
-located between periosteum and cartilage
-first sign of ossification of long bones

27

primary ossification center

in diaphysis of long bones, site in hyalin cartilage model where bone begins to form

28

secondary ossification center

in epiphysis of long bones, formation of bone and breakdown of hyalin cartilage model

29

in diaphysis of long bones, site in hyalin cartilage model where bone begins to form

primary ossification center

30

in epiphysis of long bones, formation of bone and breakdown of hyalin cartilage model

secondary ossification center

31

where are the primary and secondary ossification centers?

in long bones
primary - diaphysis
secondary - epiphysis

32

woven bone

(also primary, bundle, nonlamellar)
-initially formed and immature
-more cells, random pattern
-major type in fetus

33

primary bone

(also woven, bundle, nonlamellar)
-initially formed and immature
-more cells, random pattern
-major type in fetus

34

bundle bone

(also primary, woven, nonlamellar)
-initially formed and immature
-more cells, random pattern
-major type in fetus

35

nonlamellar bone

(also primary, woven, bundle)
-initially formed and immature
-more cells, random pattern
-major type in fetus

36

immature bone

(also primary, woven, nonlamellar, bundle)
-initially formed and immature
-more cells, random pattern
-major type in fetus

37

lamellar bone

(mature bone)
-fewer cells
-organized layers
-haversian or appositional

38

mature bone

(lamellar bone)
-fewer cells
-organized layers
-haversian or appositional

39

osteon

lamellar bone in concentric circles
(from haversian growth)

40

calcified cartilage matrix

initial scaffold for new bone deposition
-chondrocytes will apoptose, calcified cartilage removed by phagocytosis, new bone laid down by osteoblasts

41

this structure is the initial scaffold for new bone deposition

calcified cartilage matrix
-chondrocytes will apoptose, calcified cartilage removed by phagocytosis, new bone laid down by osteoblasts

42

epiphyseal cartilage

growth plate
-cartilage that remains between epiphysis and diaphysis following secondary ossification center development
-allows for continued long bone growth

43

growth plate

-epiphyseal cartilage that remains between epiphysis and diaphysis following secondary ossification center development
-allows for continued long bone growth

44

what are the zones of the epiphyseal growth plate?

-rest (reserve cartilage)
-proliferation
-hypertrophy (maturation)
-calcification & degeneration)
-ossification & resorption (of calcified cartilage)

45

articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage at ends of long bone in synovial / moveable joints
-allows smooth gliding of articulating surfaces

46

hyaline cartilage at ends of long bone in synovial / moveable joints

articular cartilage

47

epiphyseal line

what is left of epiphyseal plate when growth is completely finished
-no cartilage remains between epiphysis and diaphysis, all replaced by bone

48

what are the two kinds of tissue that bone grows within

mesenchyme (intramembranous ossification)
cartilage (endochondral ossification)

49

how does bone qualify as specialized connective tissue?

cells suspended in an extracellular matrix

50

are most bones formed by endochondral or intramembranous ossification?

endochondral

51

limb bones are developed by __ ossification

endochondral

52

the spine and ribs are developed by __ ossification

endochondral

53

by what kind of ossification is the shoulder girdle formed?

clavicle - intramembranous
the rest - endochondral

54

the pelvic girdle is developed by __ ossification

endochondral

55

where does the hyaline cartilage model for endochondral ossification come from?

mesenchymal cells

56

when are hyaline cartilage bone models developed?

by week 6 of embryonic development

57

when does ossification of limb bones begin?

week 8 of embryonic development

58

when are cartilage models developed and when does ossification of limb bones begin?

cartilage models - week 6
ossification begins - week 8

59

when in embryonic development do demands on the maternal supply of calcium, proteins, and vitamins increase significantly?

week 8
ossification of cartilage models begins
also intramembranous ossification

60

in this type of bone formation mesenchyme differentiation, mesenchyme differentiates directly to bone

intramembranous ossification

61

are flat bones of the skull formed by endochondral or intramembranous ossification?

intramembranous

62

are facial bones formed by endochondral or intramembranous ossification?

intramembranous

63

is the clavicle formed by endochondral or intramembranous ossification?

intramembranous

64

when does intramembranous ossification begin?

week 8
same as endochondral
increases demands on maternal supply of calcium proteins vitamins

65

what microscopic type of bone is formed via endochondral ossification?

primary or woven
will be replaced by lamellar bone in remodeling

66

what microscopic type of bone is formed via intramembranous ossification?

primary or woven
will be replaced by lamellar bone in remodeling

67

what microscopic type of bone is formed via intramembranous vs endochondral ossification?

both form primary or woven bone
will be replaced by lamellar bone in remodeling

68

steps of intramembranous bone formation

-mesenchymal cells organize into an ossification center with adequate vascularization
-differentiate into osteoblasts
-produce osteoid matrix that will calcify
-trapped cells become osteocytes
-ossification centers grow radially and fuse with others to produce bone

69

steps of endochondral bone formation

-mesenchymal cells organize into a hyaline cartilage model
-bone collar forms (impedes diffusion of O2 to chondrocytes)
-chondrocytes produce alkaline phosphatase and hypertrophy
-calcification and death of chondrocytes
-blood vessels penetrate bone collar bring osteoprogenitor cells
-osteoblasts add layers of primary bone to calcified cartilage matrix
-calcified cartilage removed by osteoclasts
-appositional bone growth
-secondary ossification center later appears in epiphysis
-primary woven bone replaced by secondary lamellar bone

70

what is the function of the bone collar?

in endochrondral ossification
impedes O2 diffusion to chondrocytes at primary ossification center, leads to chondrocyte hypertrophy and then death
-then blood vessels penetrate bone collar to bring osteoprogenitor cells

71

by when is epiphyseal cartilage usually eliminated?

age 20
bony epiphyseal line only

72

when are the terms intramembranous and endochondral applicable to bone?

during initial laying down (ossification) only

73

meckel's cartilage

cartilage structure in mandible that exists for structural support while mandible forms by intramembranous ossification
-regresses and disappears in fetus

74

cartilage structure in mandible that exists for structural support while mandible forms by intramembranous ossification
-regresses and disappears in fetus

meckel's cartilage

75

these cells produce osteoid

osteoblasts

76

osteoid

new, not yet calcified bone material, recently secreted from osteoblast

77

osteoblasts secrete

osteoid
and matrix vesicles (aid in calcification)

78

trabeculae

bone struts during ossification or in spongy bone

79

how is periosteum formed?

mesenchyme condenses around bone

80

do vertebrae form via endochondral or intramembranous ossificaiton?

endochondral

81

when do secondary ossification centers appear?

some before birth
some after birth

82

where do the osteoblasts come from in endochondral ossificaiton?

some from stem cells in perichondrium
some from stem cells in blood flow

83

gestational diabetes and retanoic acid exposure through acne and anti-aging creams in the mother can affect embryonic/fetal bone growth how?

can interfere with migration of cranio neural crest cell migration and cause defects in craniofacial bone development

84

when a cuboidal osteoblast is not actively producing osteoid it will become....

a squamous bone lining cell

85

T/F osteoclasts are derived from mesenchymal stem cells

false
osteoblasts, bone lining cells, osteocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells
-osteoclasts are derived from granulocyte / monocyte progenitor cells

86

what material is produced by chondrocytes in the zone of hypertrophy?

type I and type X collagen

87

does the growth plate change thickness during growth?

no
cartilage is resorbed at ~same rate bone is proliferating

88

in H&E, bone stains __, cartilage stains __

bone eosinophilic
cartilage basophilic

89

parenchymal means

the native, unique, functionally significant
(antonymn of stromal)

90

the antonymn of parenchymal

stromal

91

the antonymn of stromal

parenchymal

92

the native, unique, functionally significant
(antonymn of stromal)

parenchymal

93

is growth plate usually considered part of the epiphysis or metaphysis?

metaphysis

94

T/F growth plate is usually considered part of the epiphysis

false
metaphysis

95

T/F growth plate is usually considered part of the metaphysis

true