Week 1 - Pelvic girdle + hip joint Flashcards Preview

Sem 2 Anatomy > Week 1 - Pelvic girdle + hip joint > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 - Pelvic girdle + hip joint Deck (43)
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1
Q

Does the pelvic girdle move?

A

No

2
Q

What are the three parts of the hip bone?

A

Ilium (superior)
Pubis (anterior)
Ischium (inferior)

3
Q

Which ligaments prevent undue movement at the sacro-iliac joint?

A

Sacrotuberous & sacrospinous

4
Q

Describe the six key landmarks of the top of the femur

A
Head
Greater trochanter
Lesser trochanter
Neck
Intertrochanteric line
Crest (posterior side)
5
Q

Where do the flexors of the hip joint attach to the thigh?

A

They attach on the anterior side of the gemer, high up ear the lesser trochanter

6
Q

Are knee flexors anterior or posterior?

A

Posterior i.e. Hamstrings

7
Q

What is the linea aspera?

A

A rough line down the centre of the posterior side of the femur

8
Q

Why is the hip joint more stable than the shoulder joint?

A

It has an actual ball and socket joint, with a better fitting head and a deeper socket

9
Q

Where is the labrum of the hip joint?

A

In the acetabulum

10
Q

Where is the capsule of the hip joint?

A

Around the ring of the acetabulum

11
Q

What are the boundaries of the acetabulum?

A

The body of the ischium, body of the ilium and body of the pubis

12
Q

Describe the location of the acetabular notch

A

Found above the border of the inferior rami of the ischium and the pubis, present as the boundaries of the acetabulum don’t form a complete circle
It’s continuous with the acetabular fossa (non-articular region) at the base of the cavity

13
Q

What is the acetabular notch?

A

A deep notch in the acetabulum of the hipbone. It is converted into a foramen by the transverse acetabular ligament. Nutrient vessels and nerves enter the joint through this foraman

14
Q

How does the Ligamentum teres capitis femoris/ligament of the head of the femur attach the hip to the femur?

A

It links the fovea capitis femoris (pit in the head of the femur) to the margins of the acetabular notch

15
Q

What are the three ligaments attached to the hip capsule?

A

Iliofemoral, Ischiofemoral and Pubofemoral ligaments

16
Q

Describe the hip joint capsule in relation to the femur

-Lateral and medial

A

On the lateral side, the capsule moves from the articular surface of the hip joint, down the femur neck, then reflects back along the surface of the neck
On the medial side, the capsule attaches away from the articular surface of the hip joint, moving down the neck of the femur and again reflecting back along the neck surface
–> neck of the femur is intracapsular

17
Q

What is a major source of blood supply to the head of the femur?

A

The reflected parts of the hip joint capsule

18
Q

What is a very common hip fracture in the elderly and how can this be complicated?

A

Very common fracture is through the neck of the femur
If this tears the reflected part of the hip joint capsule, blood supply to the head of the femur is compromised and can cause avascular necrosis.

19
Q

Describe how the three main ligaments of the hip bone/capsule strengthen it?

A

They take a spiral course around the capsule to reach the femur from their specific hip bone origins, blending with the capsule.
When hip joint is fully extended, these ligaments are at maximum stretch

20
Q

Where do the hip flexors originate from?

A

The lumbar vertebrae and the iliac fossa

21
Q

What are the two main hip flexors and where do they attach to the femur?

A

Psoas major and iliacus. Share a common tendon and often referred to a iliopsoas.
Cross hip joint anteriorly, attach just below the lesser trochanter

22
Q

What are three minor hip flexors?

A

Rectus femoris, sartorius, pectineus

23
Q

Where must hip abductors pass relative to the joint?

A

Lateral side

24
Q

What are the two main hip abductors and what are their origin/insertion points?

A

Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus
Origin - outer surface of ilium
Insertion - greater trochanter

25
Q

What is the main hip extensor, and what are it’s origin and insertion points?

A

Gluteus maximus
Origin - hipbone and sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion - gluteal crest of the femur

26
Q

Describe the hamstring muscles - pattern, placement, action and origin

A

Posterior
Cross the knee to reach the tibia/fibula
Extensors of hip, flexors of knee
Common origin is the ischial tuberosity

27
Q

What are the three adductors, and what are their common origin and insertion points?

A

Three main ones: Adductor longus, adductor brevis and adductor magnus
Origin - pubis/ischiopubic ramus
Insertion - line aspera

28
Q

What are the muscles of the quadricep?

A

Rectus femoris

Three ‘vast’ femoral heads - Vastus lateralis, V.intermedius, V.medialis

29
Q

Where does the rectus femoris originate from and what does it look like on the quad?

A

Originates from the Ilium at the anterior inferior iliac spine, and crosses the hip anteriorly.
Appears as a straight, flat band

30
Q

What part of the femur do the Vastus muscles cover?

A

Almost all of the femoral shaft, except the linea aspera

31
Q

Which muscles of the quad form the common tendon attaching to the patella?

A

Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius.

Vastus medialis has muscular fibres going right down to the knee joint

32
Q

What type of bone is the patella?

A

A sesamoid bone - aka it develops within the tendon

33
Q

Describe the sartorius muscle

A

A thin muscle that originates on the lateral side of the hip and crosses the anterior thigh to insert to the tibia, crossing the knee joint.
Flexes the hip, rotates the hip and flexes knee joint

34
Q

Where do you find the Pectineus?

A

Between the iliopsoas and the adductors

35
Q

What is the TFL?

A

The tensor fasciae latae.
Tensor of the deep fascia of the thigh
Belongs to the gluteal group, is attached to the iliotibial tract

36
Q

What is the gracilis, and where do you find it?

A

A slender adductor, originating at the pubis and inserting at the upper medial tibia surface

37
Q

How many short lateral rotators of the hip joint are there and where are they?

A

There are six, found in the gluteal region. They stabilise the hip joint

38
Q

What is special about the iliofemoral ligament?

A

Supposedly one of the strongest ligaments of the body. Stops us falling over backwards when upright

39
Q

Where are the lumbar and sacral plexuses?

Which rami make these up?

A

In the abdomen and pelvis

Ventral rami of L2-S3

40
Q

Which ventral rami form the lumbar plexus?

A

L2, L3 and part of L4

41
Q

Which ventral rami form the sacral plexus?

A

Part of L4, L5, S1-S3

42
Q

What forms the lumbosacral trunk and where does this go?

A

Part of L4 and L5 ventral rami. This moves into the sacral plexus

43
Q

Where are the three nerve entry portals in the hip bone?

A

Under the inguinal ligament - Anterior to the femur
Through the obturator foramen, medial to the hip joint
Through the greater sciatic foramen. Posterior to the hip joint, looks after the gluteal nerves and sciatic nerve