Week 2 Lab - Limbs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 2 Lab - Limbs Deck (67)
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1
Q

Where are the two fossa on the anterior side of the humerus?

A

Radial fossa is above the capitulum, while the coronoid fossa is above the trochlea

2
Q

Is the medial or lateral epicondyle of the humerus larger?

A

Medial

3
Q

What runs up from the humeral epicondyles?

A

The medial and lateral supracondylar ridges

4
Q

Which muscle attaches to the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus?

A

Brachioradialis

5
Q

On which side is the tuberosity of the radius? What is the purpose of the tuberosity?

A

Medial, a short distance from the head

Purpose of radial tuberosity is for receiving the tendon of the biceps brachialis

6
Q

On which side is the styloid process of the radius, and at which end of the bone?

A

The lateral side of the end of the radius

7
Q

Why are there grooves on the posterior side of the lower end of the radius?

A

This is where extensor tendons attach

8
Q

Describe the head of the radius

A

Disc like head with an upper surface for the capitulum gently hollowed out

9
Q

To which bone and where does the pronator teres attach to?

A

The radius, about half way up the lateral edge

Attachment point is recognised by a rough area

10
Q

What is on the medial side of the lower end of the radius?

A

A small articular surface for the inferior radio-ulnar joint

11
Q

What are the four key structures at the head of the ulna and what do they do?

A

Olecranon - projection, area for triceps tendon
Large trochlear notch that fits trochlear of the humerus
Coronoid process below trochlear notch
Area for brachialis tendon below the coronoid process

12
Q

Describe the lower end of the ulna

A

Styloid process on the medial side
Rounded lower end with a smooth surface for the inferior radio-ulnar joint
Notch between the styloid process and round lower end for the fibrocartilage of the inferior radio-ulnar joint

13
Q

What is the purpose of the disc under the ulna?

A

The ulna is slightly shorter than the radius - the disc acts to ‘fill in the gap’

14
Q

Where would you find the pisiform bone?

A

This is the smallest carpal bone, found on the medial side of the carpal bones

15
Q

Describe the difference between the anterior and posterior side of the end of the femur

A

Both have two condylar areas On the posterior side the two condyles are separated by a deep notch.
On the anterior side, they are continuous for the patella

16
Q

Which femoral condyle is bigger?

A

Medial side

17
Q

What is the tubercle on the medial side of the lower end of the femur for?

A

Adductor tubercle for the Adductor Mangus

18
Q

Where would you find the markers for the limit of the quadriceps muscle?

A

As two lines on the posterior side of the femur, running up from the condyles to meet the linea aspera

19
Q

Where are the attachments of the menisci and the cruciate ligaments on the tibia?

A

At the non-articular ridge between the shallow articular areas on the medial and lateral sides that correspond to the condyles on the femur

20
Q

Where is the attachment for the quadriceps tendon?

A

On the prominent tuberosity on the anterior side of the tibia

21
Q

What is the small, smooth area on the lateral side of the tibia for?

A

The attachment of the iliotibial tract

22
Q

Describe the area where the fibula forms a synovial joint with the tibia

A

This is a smooth articular area, a little larger than a five-cent coin, found posteriorly and under the surface of the plateau

23
Q

What is a landmark of the end of the tibia?

A

The medial malleolus

24
Q

Where is the attachment on the tibia for the soleus muscle?

A

This is a rough oblique line on the posterior side of the upper end of the tibia

25
Q

Is the shaft of the tibia smooth?

A

Yes, apart from the sharp line where the interosseous membrane attaches

26
Q

What is on the lateral side of the lower end of the tibia?

A

A rough area for the strong ligament/fibrous tissue of the inferior tibiofibular joint - a syndesmosis

27
Q

How do you recognise the lower end of the fibula?

A

By the lateral malleolus, recognised by a small depression - the malleolar fossa

28
Q

Describe the upper end of the fibula

A

A markedly pointed head, with an articular area for the superior tibiofibular joint

29
Q

Where is the talus?

Describe it

A

Talus is the highest bone in the foot. It has a curved articular surface at the top which extends onto the medial and lateral sides. This surface is grasped by the tibia and fibula together, to form the ankle joint –> talocrural oint

30
Q

Which bone is behind the talus? Describe it

A

Calcaneum is behind the talus, which forms the bone of the heel. It has a large, rough area on the posterior side for the attachment of the joint tendon of the gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris (achilles tendon)

31
Q

What does the capsule in the wrist cover?

A

The smaller joints - radiocarpal, midcarpal and carpometacarpal joints

32
Q

Describe the difference between the lateral and medial collateral lugaments of the knee

A

The lateral CL is shorter, and does not fuse with the capsule. It attaches to the tibia
The medial capsule is long, and does fuse with the capsule

33
Q

The tendon of which muscle in the upper arm crosses the elbow?

A

The brachialis tendon

34
Q

Where is the bicipital aponeurosis?

A

This is a fibrous band running from the bicep tendon on the medial side. It merges with the deep fascia

35
Q

What are the two nerves that can be traced back into the arm at the medial side?

A

The median nerve - next to bicep tendon at the elbow, accompanied by brachial artery. Not visible in forearm
The ulnar nerve - posterior to medial epicondyle. Visible in forearm

36
Q

Where is the common flexor origin of the forearm muscles?

A

The medial epicondyle

37
Q

What are the four superficial flexor muscles of the forearm? How are they identified?

A
From the lateral side:
Pronator teres (ends near middle of radius). Most lateral muscle
Flexor carpi radialis - prominent tendon running across wrist
Palmaris longus - long slender tendon
Flexor carpi ulnaris - The tendon of this muscle, near the wrist, contains the pisiform bone
38
Q

Which is the muscle just posterior to the flexor carpi muscles?

A

The flexor digitorum superficialis

39
Q

Describe the location of the brachioradialis

A

Prominent muscle on lateral side of the forearm, comes from the lateral epicondyle and the supracondylar ridge, with its tendon attaching on the radius close to the styloid process.

40
Q

WHat is interesting about the brachioradialis?

A

It’s a flexor of the elbow, but developmentally belongs in the extensor compartment, as also borne out by it’s nerve supply (radial nerve)

41
Q

What are the two prominent deep flexor muscles of the forearm?

A

The flexor pollicis longus, lateral with a single long tendon going to the thumb
Flexor digitorum profundus is medial and very large, with four tendons attaching to the distal phalanges

42
Q

Where are the origins of the flexor digitorum profundus?

A

A very large area on the ulna, and the interosseous membrane

43
Q

Where are the origins of the flexor pollicis longus?

A

Part of the radius and the adjoining interosseous membrane

44
Q

Describe the extensor digitorum communis

A

This is a flexor of the two fingers next to the thumb, has prominent tendons across the top of the wrist

45
Q

Where are the radial extensors of the wrist - extensors carpi radialis longus and brevis?

A

On the lateral side of the posterior compartment of the forearm. Has two thick tendons that go across the wrist, but not towards the fingers
Attach to the lateral supracondylar ridge

46
Q

What is the name of the muscle whose single, thick tendon is on the medial side of the wrist on the extensor side of the forearm?

A

Extensor carpi ulnaris

47
Q

What makes up the femoral triangle?

A

The medial border of the sartorius muscle, the lateral border of the adductor longus and the inguinal ligament
Iliopsoas (lateral side) and the pectineus (medial side) make up the floor of the FT

48
Q

What is contained within the femoral triangle?

A

VAN - vein and artery of the femur and the femoral nerve –> in that order, with V on the medial side

49
Q

Where is the femoral canal and what is it for?

A

It’s a hole medial to the femoral vein, existing for a lymph node

50
Q

Where does the patella tendon attach after the patella?

A

To the tibial tuberosity

51
Q

Where’s the common origin of the hamstrings?

A

Ischial tuberosity

52
Q

Describe the bicep femoris

A

One of the hamstring muscles, has two heads - one coming from the ischial tuberosity, the other from the femur –> appears as a tendon coming from the lateral side
Attaches to head of fibula

53
Q

Name the hamstring muscles

A

Semitendinosus - very long tendon

Semimembranosus - also has a long tendon, but it’s flattened like a membrane on the muscle

54
Q

Describe the attachment of the semimembranosus

A

Attaches to a groove on top of the tibia

There is normally a bursa associated with this attachment

55
Q

Describe the attachment of the semitendinosus

A

At the medial side of the tibia

Accompanied by the sartorius from the anterior compartment and the gracilis from the adductor compartment

56
Q

What is the subsartorial canal for?

A

The femoral artery

57
Q

Describe the two muscles in the superficial posterior compartment of the leg

A

Most superficial is the gastrocnemius. Comes from the femur as two heads, just above the condyles. Continues into the calcaneus tendon
Beneath this is the soleus, a flat muscle coming from the head of the fibula and upper part of the tibia. Joins the gastrocnemius

58
Q

Describe the main three muscles in the deep posterior compartment of the leg

A

The tibialis posterior is a large muscle arising from the tibia with a stout tendon that passes next to the medial malleolus into the foot, but not the toes
The flexor digitorum longus is a smaller muscle with a long tendon, that stretches four tendons on the sole of the foot, leading to the toes
The flexor hallucis longus is thick, with a single long tendon leading to the great toe

59
Q

Describe the strange arrangement of the flexors of the toes

A

The flexor of the big toe comes from the fibula, the lateral bone, while the flexors of the toes comes from the medial side

60
Q

Are flexors in the leg located posteriorly or anteriorly?

A

Posteriorly - opposite to normal

61
Q

WHat is the medial boundary of the extensor compartment of the foot?

A

The subcutaneous border of the tibia

62
Q

Which muscle is immediately lateral to the subcutaneous border of the tibia?

A

The tibialis anterior. It arises from the tibia and has a stout tendon that does not reach the toes. It is a dorsiflexor of the ankles

63
Q

Which muscles is immediately lateral to the tibialis anterior?

A

The extensor hallucis longus - it’s tendon goes down to the big toe

64
Q

What is lateral to the extensor hallucis longus?

A

Moving laterally:
An artery and a nerve
The extensor digitorum longus - four tendons to the toes
Fibularis tertius - a long slender muscle coming from the fibula. Recognise that it’s tendon reaches the fifth metatarsal bone

65
Q

What do the two ‘tibial’ muscles do?

A

They come from two different compartments (anterior and posterior), but both pass medial to the foot – they invert the foot

66
Q

Which are the two muscles of the lateral compartment of the leg?

A

Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis

Brevis tendon ends on the lateral border of the foot, longus tendon crosses the sole of the foot to the medial side

67
Q

What is the action of the fibularis longus and brevis?

A

Eversion of the foot