Flashcards in 560C Vit and Min Deck (339)
The fiber family known as beta-glucans are primarily found in ____________.
Cereal brans such as oats and barley
When fluid intake is adequate, which pair of fibers or fiber sources are the most effective in increasing fecal bulk?
1. wheat bran and rice bran
Which of the following types of foods contributes the most fiber in a usual serving?
1. Whole grain breads
2. meat, dairy
3. legumes, beans
4. leafy vegetables
3. legumes, beans
What is the primary non-carbohydrate component of fiber?
Name a water-soluble, gel-forming fiber that functions in the plant as intracellular cement and that is used commercially to make jellies and to provide fiber in formulas.
The following are examples of_____ starch.
1. natural starch in cell walls of steel cut oats
3. chemically modified starch, such as cross-bonded starch
4. starch crystals in cooled, cooked foods like potatoes
When fibers form viscous gels in the stomach, what occurs?
Delayed gastric emptying
Which of the following high-fiber foods are most effective in lowering serum cholesterol?
4. oat bran and legumes
What 3 characteristics of fiber may protect against developing colon cancer?
1. Fibers can be fermented into butyric acid which may slow proliferation of cancer cells
2. Fiber absorb primary bile acids to promote excretion
3. Fiber increases fecal bulk and dilute carcinogen concentration.
At this time, what is the state of the evidence for prebiotics use to prevent or treat diarrhea?
3. promising but inconclusive
What is a mechanism for the constipation relief provided by fructooligosaccharides and inulin?
Shortened transit time
T/F: In the United States and other developed countries, the majority of the population meets the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein.
Long-term use of high-protein diets may weaken bone by what mechanism?
Acid release by digestion of protein
Which are 3 explanations for the short-term benefits of a high-protein, low carbohydrate weight loss diet?
1. Reduced postprandial blood sugar swings
from the intestine
2. Increased calories required to digest protein
3.. Slower movement of food from the stomach to the intestine
What 3 oils are a good source of alpha-linolenic acid?
1. canola oil
2. flaxseed (linseed) oil
4. soybean oil
Indicate the TWO polyunsaturated fatty acids found primarily in fish oils.
1. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
4. docasahexaenoic acid (DHA)
Match the fatty acids with their n-based structural notation.
1. arachidonic acid
2. gamma-linolenic acid
3. alpha-linolenic acid
4. eicosapentaenoic acid
A. 18:3 n-6
B. 18:3 n-3
C. 20:4 n-6
D. 20:5 n-3
1-C: arachidonic acid 20:4 n-6
2-A: gamma-linolenic acid 18:3 n-6
3-B: alpha-linolenic acid 18:3 n-3
4-D: eicosapentaenoic acid 20:5 n-3
Which TWO polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered essential, due to the absence of certain desaturase enzymes in all humans?
Indicate the TWO enzymes directly responsible for the synthesis of eicosanoids.
lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase
Name 3 families of eicosanoids:
Where is the most important reservoir for 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids that can be quickly made available for eicosanoid synthesis?
Cell membrane phospholipids
Which THREE of the following oils are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)?
2. Evening primrose (EPO)
3. Black current seed oil
4. Borage oil
T/F:Most fish oil supplements have over 50% of their fatty acid content in the form of EPA and DHA.
Patients taking which medication probably require the closest monitoring when they are also taking fish oil supplements?
The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 in the human diet has ___1____ compared to early human diets, due to increased consumption of ____2_____ and decreased consumption of _____3____.
T/F: In general, eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid are less potent inducers of inflammation, blood vessel constriction, and clotting than eicosanoids derived from EPA.
Docosahexaenoic acid appears to be especially crucial for normal development of which TWO tissues in infancy?
Which three fatty acids can be directly converted into eicosanoids such as prostaglandins?
The highest Adequate Intake requirements for omega-3 fatty acids have been set for which TWO life stage groups?
2. male adolescents
3. Males adults