Flashcards in 560C Vit and Min Deck (339)
Match the following characteristics with the appropriate mineral. (Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus)
1. Biological roles include promotion of blood clotting
2. NOT a component of hydroxyapatite in bone
3. Binds phosphate groups in ATP and ATP-dependent enzyme reactions
4. An important acid-base buffer in cells and the renal system
Match the following characteristics with the appropriate mineral. - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus
1. Inadequate intake associated with hypertension, colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity
2. Inadequate intake associated with cardiac dysrhythmias and hypertension
3. Over ingestion may cause diarrhea
4. Over ingestion has been linked to risk of prostate cancer
5. Overuse of antacids, but not proton pump inhibitors, is a documented cause of deficiency
Match the following characteristics with the appropriate mineral: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium
1. Dietary sources include soft drinks
2. Increased renal losses when urine is acidic
3. Component of chlorophyll in green leafy vegetables
Which of the following is the most concentrated form of calcium?
T/F:Calcium absorption in adults is typically less than 50%, whether from food or supplements.
The binding protein that regulates many of the calcium-dependent enzymes is ___________
Which of the following has the least absorb-able calcium in a typical serving?
3. Tofu set with calcium
What is found in bran and legumes and will, in large amounts, have a detrimental effect upon absorption of minerals such as calcium?
_______ supplements can inhibit the absorption of iron, but the effect is likely temporary
Which of the following is the most reliable method for measuring calcium status?
2. bone mass measurements
When in the lifecycle does the attainment of peak bone mass typically occur?
What is the most frequent site of fracture due to osteoporosis?
Phosphate balance is achieved largely by _____.
T/F: An extra 2.3 grams of daily sodium intake appears to have a more significant effect on urinary calcium excretion than does an extra 300-400 mg of caffeine intake.
T/F: A diet high in fruits and vegetables may help prevent bone loss and osteoporosis by increasing the dietary acid load.
Which mineral participates in more than 300 enzyme systems?
T/F: In muscle contraction, the roles of calcium and magnesium are antagonistic, with magnesium promoting contraction and calcium being the inhibitor.
In muscle contraction, the roles of calcium and magnesium are antagonistic, with Calcium promoting the process and magnesium being the inhibitor
1. Intracellular and serum levels are rigidly maintained.
2. in cells is associated with phospholipids and proteins.
3. About half is in the body is associated with the bones.
1. can compete with calcium to bind sites on smooth muscle, thus inhibiting contraction
3. can compete with calcium for reabsorption by the kidney
4. can decrease calcium flux across cell membranes
T/F: Supplementation with large amounts of magnesium may lead to adverse effects when impaired kidney function exists.
Which 2 organs are responsible for regulation of extracellular water osmolarity and volume?
hypothalamus and kidney
Which hormone, stimulated by increased blood pressure stretching the heart, functions to inhibit sodium reabsorption to promote sodium excretion?
Atrial natriuretic peptide
A clinically useful parameter in establishing metabolic disorders that can alter electrolyte balance is:
1. anion gap
( is the difference between primary measured cations (sodium Na+ and potassium K+) and the primary measured anions (chloride Cl- and bicarbonate HCO3-) in serum)
Sodium X ? = Salt
The salt intake of an individual whose dietary sodium intake is 2000 mg per day is:
? = 2.5
What percentage of total sodium intake is contributed by salt added during cooking and at the table?
What percentage of total sodium intake is contributed by salt added to processed foods?
A food may be labeled "low sodium" if each serving provides less than _______ per serving.
T/F:Less than 85% of either ingested sodium or ingested potassium is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
25-35 grams of sodium are absorbed in the intestines per day (includes 5g from diet and 20-30g secreted).
T/F: Gastrointestinal absorption of sodium is dependent upon a single biological pathway.