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Flashcards in 560C Vit and Min Deck (339)
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181

Match the following characteristics with the appropriate mineral. (Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus)

1. Biological roles include promotion of blood clotting
2. NOT a component of hydroxyapatite in bone
3. Binds phosphate groups in ATP and ATP-dependent enzyme reactions
4. An important acid-base buffer in cells and the renal system

Calcium
Magnesium
Magnesium
Phosphorus

182

Match the following characteristics with the appropriate mineral. - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

1. Inadequate intake associated with hypertension, colon cancer, diabetes, and obesity
2. Inadequate intake associated with cardiac dysrhythmias and hypertension
3. Over ingestion may cause diarrhea
4. Over ingestion has been linked to risk of prostate cancer
5. Overuse of antacids, but not proton pump inhibitors, is a documented cause of deficiency

1. Calcium
2. Magnesium
3. Magnesium
4. Calcium
5. Phosphorus

183

Match the following characteristics with the appropriate mineral: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium
1. Dietary sources include soft drinks
2. Increased renal losses when urine is acidic
3. Component of chlorophyll in green leafy vegetables

Phsophorus
Calcium
Magnesium

184

Which of the following is the most concentrated form of calcium?

1. carbonate

185

T/F:Calcium absorption in adults is typically less than 50%, whether from food or supplements.

TRUE

186

The binding protein that regulates many of the calcium-dependent enzymes is ___________

Calmadulin

187

Which of the following has the least absorb-able calcium in a typical serving?

1. Milk
2. Spinach
3. Tofu set with calcium
4. Kale

2. Spinach

188

What is found in bran and legumes and will, in large amounts, have a detrimental effect upon absorption of minerals such as calcium?

Phytate/Phytic acid

189

_______ supplements can inhibit the absorption of iron, but the effect is likely temporary

Calcium

190

Which of the following is the most reliable method for measuring calcium status?

2. bone mass measurements

191

When in the lifecycle does the attainment of peak bone mass typically occur?

young adulthood

192

What is the most frequent site of fracture due to osteoporosis?

hip

193

Phosphate balance is achieved largely by _____.

Renal excretion

194

T/F: An extra 2.3 grams of daily sodium intake appears to have a more significant effect on urinary calcium excretion than does an extra 300-400 mg of caffeine intake.

TRUE

195

T/F: A diet high in fruits and vegetables may help prevent bone loss and osteoporosis by increasing the dietary acid load.

FALSE

196

Which mineral participates in more than 300 enzyme systems?

Magnesium

197

T/F: In muscle contraction, the roles of calcium and magnesium are antagonistic, with magnesium promoting contraction and calcium being the inhibitor.

FALSE
In muscle contraction, the roles of calcium and magnesium are antagonistic, with Calcium promoting the process and magnesium being the inhibitor

198

what mineral?

1. Intracellular and serum levels are rigidly maintained.
2. in cells is associated with phospholipids and proteins.
3. About half is in the body is associated with the bones.

magnesium

199

What mineral?

1. can compete with calcium to bind sites on smooth muscle, thus inhibiting contraction
3. can compete with calcium for reabsorption by the kidney
4. can decrease calcium flux across cell membranes

Magnesium

200

T/F: Supplementation with large amounts of magnesium may lead to adverse effects when impaired kidney function exists.

TRUE

201

Which 2 organs are responsible for regulation of extracellular water osmolarity and volume?

hypothalamus and kidney

202

Which hormone, stimulated by increased blood pressure stretching the heart, functions to inhibit sodium reabsorption to promote sodium excretion?

Atrial natriuretic peptide

203

A clinically useful parameter in establishing metabolic disorders that can alter electrolyte balance is:

1. anion gap

( is the difference between primary measured cations (sodium Na+ and potassium K+) and the primary measured anions (chloride Cl- and bicarbonate HCO3-) in serum)

204

Sodium X ? = Salt
The salt intake of an individual whose dietary sodium intake is 2000 mg per day is:

5000 mg

? = 2.5

205

What percentage of total sodium intake is contributed by salt added during cooking and at the table?

15%

206

What percentage of total sodium intake is contributed by salt added to processed foods?

75%

207

A food may be labeled "low sodium" if each serving provides less than _______ per serving.

140mg

208

T/F:Less than 85% of either ingested sodium or ingested potassium is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

FALSE
25-35 grams of sodium are absorbed in the intestines per day (includes 5g from diet and 20-30g secreted).

209

T/F: Gastrointestinal absorption of sodium is dependent upon a single biological pathway.

FALSE

210

While all of the following affect blood volume and blood pressure, one of them is not part of a specific coordinated system of biochemical interactions. Which one?
1. Renin
2. Aldosterone
3. Anti-diuretic hormone
4. Angiotensin

3. Anti-diuretic hormone