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ENT Week 1 2017/18 > 7: Microbiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7: Microbiology Deck (64)
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1

A sore throat with stridor or respiratory distress is an indication for what?

Admission

2

Why shouldn't you examine an inflamed throat?

Could make inflammation (i.e epiglottitis) worse and constrict throat

3

What throat infections cause pain at the back of the mouth?

Acute pharyngitis

Tonsilitis

4

What tends to cause throat infections?

Viruses

Bacteria

5

In which groups do acute throat infections usually occur?

Younger people (< 25 years)

6

Acute throat infections are often complicated by which diseases?

Otitis media

Quinsy

Parapharyngeal abscess

Mastoiditis

7

What is the course of most acute throat infections?

Resolve within 1 week - self-limiting

8

Should acute throat infections be swabbed?

Not routinely

9

What should you suspect if a sore throat and lethargy last more than 2 weeks in a young person?

Glandular fever

(infectious mononucleosis)

10

If someone has a persistent sore throat and a neck mass, what should you suspect?

Pharyngeal cancer

11

Which score is used to predict which acute throat infection patients would actually benefit from antibiotics?

Centor clinical prediction score

12

The vast majority of sore throats (do / do not) require antibiotics.

Why?

do not

viral

13

What are the most common bacterial causes of sore throat?

GAS

Strep. pyogenes

gram +ve chains

14

How would a Strep. pyogenes throat infection be treated?

Penicillin

15

What are rare complications of GAS throat infections causing:

a) fever, arthritis

b) acute renal failure?

a) Rheumatic fever

b) Glomerulonephritis

16

Which organism produces a grey white membrane across the throat which is an exotoxin?

What is the disease called?

Corynebacterium diptheriae

Diptheria

17

What is the classical feature of diptheria?

Pseudomembrane

18

Is diptheria common in the UK?

No

19

What sort of vaccine is given for diptheria?

Inactivated vaccine

20

How is diptheria treated?

Supportive therapy

Diptheria antitoxin

Penicillin

21

What causes oral thrush?

Candida

22

What does oral thrush look like?

White patches on inflamed membranes in throat and mouth

23

How is oral thrush treated?

Nystatin (anti-fungal)

24

What is acute otitis media?

What is the main symptom?

Middle ear infection

Earache

25

What commonly causes otitis media?

Most are VIRAL

Bacterial Strep. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Strep. pyogenes

26

In which situation only can you obtain a swab of pus in otitis media?

Perforation of tympanic membrane

which is obviously really bad

27

How is otitis media treated?

Supportive (viral)

Bacterial: amoxicillin > erythromycin

28

What is acute sinusitis?

Mild discomfort over sinuses often seen in URTI

29

When is acute sinusitis treated?

Secondary bacterial infection

Severe pain

30

How is secondary bacterial sinusitis treated?

Penicillin IV

Doxycyline BUT NOT IN CHILDREN