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ENT Week 1 2017/18 > 4: ENT pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4: ENT pathology Deck (55)
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1

What lines the ear canal?

Epidermis (stratified squamous epithelium)

2

What are ceruminous glands?

Produce earwax

3

Any pathology which affects the ___ can also affect the ear canal.

Skin

4

What kind of epithelium lines the middle ear?

Columnar epithelium

5

What is the Organ of Corti?

Part of cochlea which contains hair cells

6

What type of epithelium is found in the nasal vestibule?

Keratinised squamous epithelium

7

What type of epithelium is found in the nasal cavities and sinuses?

What is it exactly the same as?

Schneiderian epithelium

Respiratory epithelium - pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

8

What types of epithelium are found in the throat?

Respiratory epithelium

Squamous epithelium for vocal cords

9

What type of glands are the salivary glands?

Exocrine glands

10

What do the serous cells and mucus cells of the salivary glands secrete?

Serous - digestive enzymes e.g alpha amylase

Mucus - clear grey sticky mucus

11

What is otitis media?

Inflammation of the middle ear

12

What usually causes otitis media?

Viruses

Occasionally bacteria, if chronic, suspect Pseudomonas

13

What is a cholesteatoma?

NOT a TUMOUR and DOESN'T CONTAIN CHOLESTEROL

Production of keratinised squamous epithelium in middle ear producing nasty discharge

14

Cholesteatoma involves the metaplasia of ___ ___ epithelium into ___ ___ epithelium.

cuboidal glandular

squamous keratinised

15

What is a nerve tumour of the nerve which controls balance?

Vestibular schwannoma

16

Tumours at which angle are almost always benign vestibular schwannomas?

Cerebellopontine angle

17

What do schwannomas look like on histology?

Elongated nuclei

Verocay bodies - sandwiches of cells between darker palisades

18

What genetic disease predisposes you to bilateral schwannomas?

Neurofibromatosis type 2

(also cafe au lait spots, axillary freckles, Lisch nodules in the eye)

19

What sign is seen in the eyes in neurofibromatosis type 2?

Lisch nodules

20

What is the mode of inheritance of NF type 2?

Autosomal dominant

21

What are common benign masses found in the nose?

Which group are they NOT common in?

Nasal polyps

Children

22

If you encounter a child with nasal polyps, what should you consider?

Cystic fibrosis

23

Are nasal polyps painful?

No

24

What type of vasculitis has a lot of midline symptoms (i.e ENT, renal)?

Wegener's granulomatosis

Now called granulomatosis with polyangiitis

25

Which antibodies are detected in

a) microscopic polyangiitis

b) granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's)?

a) pANCA

b) cANCA

26

What is one of the most common reasons for nasal ulceration?

Cocaine

27

What happens to blood vessels in granulomatosis with polyangiitis?

Occluded by giant inflammatory cells

28

What are some benign tumours of the nasal cavity?

Squamous cell papillomas

Schneiderian papillomas

29

What are some malignant lesions of the nasal cavity?

Squamous cell carcinoma

30

What are malignant tumours of glandular epithelium?

Adenocarcinoma