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Physiology Exam 2 Endocrine (Shelby) > Growth > Flashcards

Flashcards in Growth Deck (56)
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1
Q

Exercise increases glucose entry into cells, absent of

A

insulin

2
Q
Interleukin 6 (IL6) has an anti-inflammatory effect in: 
Interleukin 6 (IL6) has an pro-inflammatory effect in:
A

anti: muscle
pro: adipose

3
Q

congenital pan-hypopituitarism is a decreased in which hormones?

A

anterior pituitary hormones

GH, TSH, ACTH

4
Q

What accelerates the closure of epiphyseal plates at the end of puberty in boys?

A

testosterone

achieved by the aromatization of testosterone to estrogen

5
Q

T3 stimulates the expression of FGFR1, IGF1, GF1R, Osteocalcin, Collagen 1, ALP, MMP9, and MMP13

These genes are for:

A

bone formation

osteoblasts

6
Q

Pubertal growth correlates well with ______ plasma levels

A

IFG-1

7
Q

What stimulates the release of growth hormone from pituitary somatotropes

A

GHRH

8
Q

Why do boys have more prepubertal growth than girls

A

because they start puberty ~2 years later

9
Q

Thyroid hormone in concert with ______ regulates mammary gland development

A

prolactin

10
Q

How long after growth hormone is released is IFG-1 released?

A

12-18 hours

11
Q

Which hormone is required for tooth development and eruption

A

thyroid hormone

growth maturation effects

12
Q

Growth hormone + insulin work together to

A

promote protein synthesis

insulin resembles IGF, excess may stimulate growth

13
Q

Thyroid hormone facilitates linear growth of the bone by increasing activity of ______ in the growth plate

A

cartilage chondrocytes

14
Q

ACTH deficiency/hypocortisolism would create a deficit in glucocorticoids which has what effect on growth hormone SIGNALING

A

low levels of growth hormone

15
Q

What is the key hormone for increasing metabolic need PRIOR to tissue accumulation (growth)

A

thyroid hormone

16
Q

The symptoms of cold intolerance, dry skin, mental dullness, and bradycardia in someone with congenital pan-hypopituitarism is an indication of atrophy of which gland

A

thyroid

17
Q

Growth hormone and IGF-1 promote long bone growth ONLY as long as:

A

the epiphyseal plates remains cartilaginous (open)

18
Q

growth hormone effects ABSENT of linear bone growth:

A

acromegaly

19
Q

ineffective thyroid hormone affects both ____ and ____ in cretinism

A

growth and maturation

20
Q

testosterone and growth hormone enhances _______ secretion in the liver

A

IGF-1

21
Q

What is congenital pan-hypopituitarism?

A

deficiency of two or more anterior pituitary hormones

22
Q

insulin facilitates muscle protein synthesis via ____ signaling pathway

A

mTORC

23
Q

Which phase of growing is uniquely human

A

extended period of adolescence

24
Q

T3 effect on bone MATURATION

A

stimulates adult bone remodeling

activates transcription factors that alter the expression of genes related to bone growth and turnover

25
Q

T3 stimulates the expression of IL6 and PGE2

These genes are for:

A

bone resorption

osteoclasts

26
Q

growth hormone stimulates ________ to increase linear growth

A

somatomedins
IGF-1
******

27
Q

What induces ossification of the epiphyseal plate at the end of adolescence?

A

sex steroids

28
Q

IGF-1 is _____ dependent

A

growth hormone

29
Q

Growth hormone + sex steroids work together to

A

protein synthesis
enhance long bone growth
masculinization of the brain may enhance GH secretion

30
Q

Which hormone is responsible for growth and maturation of the epidermis, hair follicles and nails

A

thyroid hormone

growth maturation effects

31
Q

What maintains lean body mass in adults

A

growth hormone

32
Q

3 positive effects of glucocorticoids on growth hormone signaling:

A
  1. induce GH gene expression
  2. induce GHRH receptor on somatotropes
  3. Increased ghrelin receptors on GH-secreting cells
33
Q

increased LINEAR growth due to excessive stimulation of epiphyseal plates:

A

gigantism

34
Q

An adrenalectomy would create a deficit in glucocorticoids which has what effect on growth hormone SIGNALING

A

decreased expression of GHRH and ghrelin receptors in the pituitary

35
Q

How do glucocorticoids stimulate growth hormones?

How do glucocorticoids inhibit growth hormones?

A

stimulate: stimulates anterior pituitary
inhibits: increased somatostatin inhibits pituitary gland

36
Q

The symptoms of amenorrhea, diminished secondary sexual characteristics, and male impotence in someone with congenital pan-hypopituitarism is an indication of atrophy of which gland

A

gonads

low FSH/LH

37
Q

What inhibits the release of growth hormone?

A

GH and IGF-1 negatively feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary to stem release of growth hormone release hormone, causing an increase in growth hormone INHIBITING hormone from the hypothalamus

38
Q

developmental gene that blocks muscle cell growth and differentiation and inhibits insulin

A

myostatin

39
Q

growth hormone + _______ = negative effects in the liver (decreased IGF-1, less growth)

A

estrogen

40
Q

Which has a longer half life IFG-1 or growth hormone?

A

IFG-1

41
Q

What can increase insulin sensitivity during exercise

A

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)

42
Q

What plays a large role in growth hormone secretion?

A

environmental factors

diet, sleep, stress, exercuse

43
Q

Growth hormone + thyroid hormone (T3/T4) work together to

A

permissive for growth in children

need T3/T4- can’t have growth hormone alone

44
Q

Interleukin 6 (IL6) in the muscle does what?

A

increases insulin-induced glucose uptake by increased GLUT 4

45
Q

building muscles = slow or rapid?

A

rapid

46
Q

nutritional effects that can stimulate muscle protein synthesis without any training

A

infused amino acids activate mTORC

47
Q

hormone signaling effects that can stimulate muscle protein synthesis without any training

A

insulin facilitates muscle protein synthesis via mTORC signaling pathway

48
Q

_______ promotes deposition of adipose tissue in breasts and buttocks

A

estrogen

49
Q

when does growth hormone signal rapid linear growth

A

puberty

NOT EARLY CHILDHOOD

50
Q

In boys, ______ stimulates bone growth during puberty

A

testosterone

51
Q

congenital pan-hypopituitarism are more sensitive to:

A

stress! (like illness and trauma

because less pituitary hormones – adrenal cortex atrophies, gonads atrophy, thyroid gland atrophies

52
Q

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a fuel gauge for muscle cells and influences genes in:

A

lipid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways

53
Q

growth hormone + ______ = positive effects in the liver ( increased IGF-1, more growth)

A

testosterone

54
Q

4 negative effects of glucocorticoids on growth hormone signaling:

A
  1. increased hypothalamic somatostatin
  2. decrease GH receptor expression in peripheral tissues
  3. hypercortisolism (Cushing’s) = muted GH secretion
  4. exogenous glucocorticoids suppress growth in children
55
Q

______ promotes early pubertal growth spurts in girls

A

DHEA

56
Q

Which hormones activate mTORC?

Which hormones inhibit mTORC?

A
activate = insulin
inhibits = myostatin, stress, and cytokines