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Physiology Exam 2 Endocrine (Shelby) > Fatty Fat > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fatty Fat Deck (63)
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1
Q

Three types of adipocytes :

two types of fat depots:

A

adipocytes: white, brown, beige

fat depots: WAT, BAT

2
Q

What does tumor necrosis factor a do?

A

decrease adipocyte mass

insulin resistance

3
Q

What hormone change might be responsible for the weight gain of biggest loser individuals

A

leptin does not return to normal

4
Q

which is reversible, hypertrophy or hyperplasia of adipose tissue

A

hypertrophy

5
Q

What does leptin do

A

metabolic regulator and feedback signal on appetite (decreases appetite)

protects body from too much lipid deposits

6
Q

What hormones are needed to stimulate brown adipose tissue to release heat

A

TSH and epinephrine

7
Q

epinephrine stimulates a (lipolytic/lipogenic) effect

A

lipolytic

via HSL and ATGL

8
Q

calculation of BMI in metric

A

weight (kg) / hight (m^2)

9
Q

What is the origin of adiponectin

A

adipocytes

10
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

tumor necrosis factor a

A

visceral

11
Q

What stimulates adiponectin?

A

weight loss

12
Q

Men are less sensitive to ____ effects of insulin

A

anti-lypolytic

bastards.

13
Q

what does visfatin do

A

released from visceral fat, binds the insulin receptor and exerts a hypoglycemic effect

14
Q

_______ lower body fat and improve insulin sensitivity in both sexes

A

estrogens and androgens

15
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

testosterone

A

visceral

16
Q

what does adiponectin do to adipose tissue

A

adipogensis and insulin-directed glucose transport

*****over expression of adiponectin in fat tissue = increase in subcutaneous fat AND helps with insulin resistance

17
Q

insulin:

(stimulates/inhibits): lipoprotein lipase (LPL)
(stimulates/inhibits): GLUT 4
(stimulates/inhibits): hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)

A
lipoprotein lipase (LPL) = stimulates
GLUT 4 = stimulates
hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) = inhibits
18
Q

When does hyperplasia of adipocytes occur

A

first year of life
late pregnancy
beginning of puberty

19
Q

BMI less than ____ = underweight

A

18.5

20
Q

What does resistin do

A

associated with type-2 diabetes and elevated LDL

21
Q

anorexigenic or orexigenic?

insulin

A

anorexigenic

22
Q

What stimulates leptin?

A

increased adiposity

23
Q

anorexigenic or orexigenic?

melanocortins (POMC)

A

anorexigenic

24
Q

What stimulates interleukin-6

A

inflammatory cytokines

25
Q

What does interleukin-6 do

A

insulin resistance

proinflammatory

26
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

higher disease risk

A

visceral

27
Q

What does omentin do?

A

maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity

cardiovascular protective effects

28
Q

What is the origin of leptin

A

adipocytes

29
Q

What does adiponectin do

A

insulin sensitizing and anti-inflammatory hormone

30
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

estrogen induces

A

subcutaneous

31
Q

BMI ___ -____ = overweight

A

25-29.5

32
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

interleukin-6

A

visceral

33
Q

What does adiponectin do?

A

increased oxidation of FFA
anti-inflammatory effects
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS ON INSULIN RESISTANCE

34
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

M2

A

subcutaneous

**anti-inflammatory

35
Q

BMI over ____ = obese

A

30

36
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

lepin

A

subcutaneous

37
Q

What is the origin of interleukin-6?

A

WAT, macrophages

38
Q

What is the difference between brown and beige fat

A

beige fat is actually WHITE fat with intermediate mitochondria, UCP1 and lipid droplets compared to BAT

39
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

adiponectin

A

subcutaneous

40
Q

What is the origin of tumor necrosis factor a?

A

adipocytes, macrophages

41
Q

What does adiponectin do to the liver

A

promote glucose uptake and storage

42
Q

how fat deposition occurs in the body =

A

adiposity

43
Q

What does adiponectin do to cardiovascular system

A

attenuates blood pressure

anti-atherogenic

44
Q

How does leptin resistance cause obesity?

A

normally leptin inhibits insulin secretion
when lost, hyperinsulinemia increases weight gain

increased appetite

leptin also stimulates gluconeogensis

45
Q

calculation of BMI the ‘merica way

A

weight (lbs) x 703/ height (inches)

46
Q

How is Brown fat a heat generating organ?

A

UCP-1 transcription
BAT mitochondria are uncoupled
Food energy —> heat energy

47
Q

anorexigenic or orexigenic?

Peptide PTT3, 36

A

anorexigenic

48
Q

anorexigenic or orexigenic?

amylin

A

anorexigenic

49
Q

anorexigenic or orexigenic?

CCK

A

anorexigenic

50
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

omental and mesenteric

A

visceral

51
Q

two major adipokines

A
  1. leptin

2. adipnectin

52
Q

What is inside of brown fat tissue

A
  1. small lipid droplets
  2. uncoupled mitochondria
  3. myoglobin
53
Q

anorexigenic or orexigenic?

Neuropeptide Y (NPY)

A

orexigenic

54
Q

What does adiponectin do to resting skeletal muscle?

A

increase GLUT 4

55
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

M1

A

visceral

**pro-inflammatory

56
Q

adipose diameter ranges from __- __ mm

A

0.02 - 0.2 mm

57
Q

anorexigenic or orexigenic?

leptin

A

anorexigenic

58
Q

BMI ___-___= healthy/lean

A

18.5-24.9

59
Q

What stimulates tumor necrosis factor a?

A

engorgement of adipocytes

60
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

most active metabolic activity

A

visceral

61
Q

anorexigenic or orexigenic?

ghrelin

A

orexigenic

62
Q

What does interleukin-1 do?

A

regulatory cytokine that promotes tumor growth

63
Q

subcutaneous depots or visceral depots?

peripheral tissues

A

subcutaneous