Endocrine Pancreas Flashcards Preview

Physiology Exam 2 Endocrine (Shelby) > Endocrine Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Pancreas Deck (47)
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1
Q

Somatostain receptors are present in the pancreas which is a ______ effect

A

paracrine

2
Q

gamma cells

A

pancreatic polypeptide

3
Q

GLUT 1 transports glucose:

A

across BBB

4
Q

sympathetic stimulation = ________ insulin

A

decreased

5
Q

in the process of glucose stimulating the release of insulin, glucose-6-phosphate oxidation causes:

A

increased ATP which closes K+ channels, which depolarizes the cell membrane

6
Q

increased protein = _______ insulin

A

increased

7
Q

What does somatostatin do?

A

inhibits digestive function

8
Q

beta cells

A

insulin, amylin

9
Q

GLUT 3 transports glucose:

A

into neurons

10
Q

How can we measure insulin quantity in the urine

A

c peptide

11
Q

What are the 2 causes of diabetes type 1

A
  1. autoimmune ( T lymphocytes destroy B cells)

2. idiopathic

12
Q

proglucagon is proteolytically processed to yield:

A

glucagon

incretin (GLP1)

13
Q

Why does polydipsia occur in chronic diabetes

A

compensate for effects of dehydration

14
Q

epsilon cells

A

ghrelin

15
Q

Glucagon has ____ effect on blood amino acids

A

minimal!

16
Q

in the process of glucose stimulating the release of insulin, how does glucose enter the cell

A

via GLUT 2 via facilitated diffusion

17
Q

increased incretins (GI hormones) = ______ insulin

A

increased

18
Q

glucose detection is in the ________ in the hypothalamus

A

arcuate nucleus

19
Q

What does amylin do?

A

acts on CNS to suppress appetite

20
Q

How does diabetes inhibit growth rates in children

A

due to a shift towards protein catabolism

muscle atrophy and weight loss and no growth

21
Q

Why do cells of the body shrink in chronic diabetes

A

due to an osmotic shift of water into ECF and the blood (from dehydration)

22
Q

alpha cells

A

glucagon

23
Q

Proinsulin cleaves to form:

A

c peptide

a-chain + B-chain connected by 2 disulfide bonds

24
Q

glucagon primarily targets the:

A

liver

to stimulate hepatic glucose output

25
Q

delta cells

A

somatostatin

26
Q

parasympathetic stimulation = _______ insulin

A

increased

27
Q

What does pancreatic polypeptide do?

A

putatively reduces appetites and food intake

28
Q

Which GLUT transporter is the only one dependent on insulin

A

GLUT 4

29
Q

What is the consequence of low levels of insulin secretion?

A

GLUT-4 can’t get to the cell surface, can’t bring glucose into the cell

30
Q

GLUT 2 transports glucose:

A

in kidney and intestine

31
Q

What is the cause of diabetes type 2

A

life style choice

32
Q

What are the two ways hypoglycemia from insulin excess can occur

A
  1. self-administered insulin overdose

2. reactive hypoglycemia

33
Q

Your patient has lost consciousness from insulin excess. Before giving them a sugary snack, what do you need to do?

A

make sure it is insulin overdose and not reactive hypoglycemia

check c-peptide levels

34
Q

in the process of glucose stimulating the release of insulin, what happens because of K+ channels closing and depolarizing the cell membrane?

A

voltage gated Ca2+ channels open

Ca2+ enters B-cell

35
Q

Where is proinsulin cleaves to insulin and c-peptide

A

inside secretory granules

36
Q

What stimulates the release of somatostatin

A

high fat, carbs, and protein-rich meals

37
Q

in the process of glucose stimulating the release of insulin, how does glucose become “trapped” in the cell

A

by becoming glucose-6-phosphate

38
Q

Why does polyphagia occur in chronic diabetes

A

increased appetite due to cells starving because glucose can’t get into the cell

39
Q

What happens to nerve cells in chronic diabetes

A

lose their ability to maintain correct membrane potentials and form action potentials

40
Q

growth hormone effect on blood glucose

A

stimulates glucose to stay in the blood for the brain to use while other tissues are using lipids and protein to grow

41
Q

Other than hypoglycemia, what else can stimulate the release of glucagon

A
  1. epinephrine
  2. CCK
  3. vagal stimulation
  4. fasting
  5. exercise
42
Q

What is primarily responsible for regulating food intakes and body composition

A

hypothalamic brain centers

43
Q

in the process of glucose stimulating the release of insulin, what triggers exocytosis of insulin vesicles?

A

Ca2+

44
Q

In the absence of carbohydrates in the diet, what can stimulate glucagon release?

A

dietary protein (arginine)

45
Q

What does somatostatin inhibit outside of the pancreas

A

inhibits release of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary

46
Q

GLP1 is released from intestine in response to:

A

high glucose levels in the intestinal lumen

increases insulin release!

47
Q

What is the most common type of all endocrine disorders?

A

diabetes mellitus