767 Midterm Notes (Imported) Flashcards Preview

ECPY 767 (Midterm) > 767 Midterm Notes (Imported) > Flashcards

Flashcards in 767 Midterm Notes (Imported) Deck (294)
Loading flashcards...
149

According to Kerlinger and Lee: - A posteriori probability is defined as

relative long-term frequency. Ratio of the # of times an event occurs to the total number of trials

150

According to Kerlinger and Lee: - Relative frequency is defined as

1) probability value itself, and 2) the weight of evidence associated with it. *Important for the behavioral sciences.

151

According to Kerlinger and Lee: What is - Conditional probability?

the probability of A, given B. In the instance of conditional probability, our foreknowledge of a characteristic reduces the sample space (or the denominator in the probability equation. We are dealing with a pertinent subset of U, this variable is related to the criterion variable.

152

According to Kerlinger and Lee: - Bayes’ theorem is the basis for

Confirmatory factor analysis, SEM, and discriminant analysis

153

According to Kerlinger and Lee: What is - Sampling?

taking a portion of a population or universe as a representation of that population or universe.

154

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Random Sampling

method of drawing samples from a population such that every possible sample of a particular size has an equal chance of being selected. Resulting samples are called ‘random samples.’

155

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Sampling with replacement?

placing each individual back into the population so that the probability remains the same

156

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Sampling without replacement?

not replacing individuals chosen from a population

157

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is representative sampling?

to be typical of a population – the sample has approximately the same characteristics as the population relevant to the research question.

158

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Randomization?

is the assignment to experimental treatments of members of the universe in a way such that, for any given assignment to a treatment every member of the universe has an equal probability of being chosen for that assignment. (random assignment)

159

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - The purpose of randomization?

spread out individuals with varying characteristics equally among treatment groups. No guarantee that this actually happens.

160

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is the importance of sample size (with regard to randomization)?

use as large a sample as possible – gives the principle of randomness and randomization a chance to work

161

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Probability sampling ?

use some form of random sampling in one or more of their stages

162

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Stratified sampling?

population is divided into strata (men and women, Latino / white, etc.) and then random samples are drawn from the stratified groups.

163

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is the purpose of random sampling?

helps to prevent, or curtail, bias

164

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Cluster sampling?

successive random sampling of units, or sets and subsets. A cluster is a group of things of the same kind. Also referred to as area sampling (school districts, etc.)

165

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Two-stage cluster sampling?

successive random sampling of units, or sets and subsets. then select a random sample of the elements and measure those elements

166

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Systematic sampling?

order the elements of the population, figure out number needed for sample and pick every kth person (every 10th person on the list)

167

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is Non probability sampling?

Sampling that does not use any form of random sampling

168

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Quota sampling?

Type of non-probability sampling that using strata (sex, race, region, etc.) to select sample members that are representative or typical. (public opinion polls use this)

169

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Purposive sampling?

Type of non-probability sampling that use of judgment and deliberate effort to obtain representative samples by including presumably typical areas or groups in the sample (marketing research)

170

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Accidental sampling?

Type of non-probability sampling that weakest form of sampling, but most highly used – classes of seniors in high school, sophomores in college, etc

171

According to Winnicot &Winnicot, - Regression allows

prediction – how will Y be affected by X in a given situation

172

According to Winnicot &Winnicot, “good fit” for the regression

line that minimizes error the most

173

According to Levin, experimental method is best for

manipulating and controlling causal variables and identifying specific factors as the causes of a behavior

174

According to Levin, - The method of observation is

careful and systematic observation to observe behavior and its antecedents in the absence of outside intervention.

175

According to Levin, what is the definition of - Manipulation?

creating or selecting discrete levels of a variable and comparing responses across levels

176

According to Levin, what is the definition of control?

holding extraneous variables (anything other than the IV that could affect an experiment) constant across levels of the IV

177

According to Levin, what is the definition of randomization?

assigning subjects randomly to treatment conditions

178

According to Levin, what is the definition of the independent variable?

variable that is manipulated (by way of assigning subjects to treatment groups)