Flashcards in 767 Midterm Notes (Imported) Deck (294)

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149

## According to Kerlinger and Lee: - A posteriori probability is defined as

### relative long-term frequency. Ratio of the # of times an event occurs to the total number of trials

150

## According to Kerlinger and Lee: - Relative frequency is defined as

### 1) probability value itself, and 2) the weight of evidence associated with it. *Important for the behavioral sciences.

151

## According to Kerlinger and Lee: What is - Conditional probability?

### the probability of A, given B. In the instance of conditional probability, our foreknowledge of a characteristic reduces the sample space (or the denominator in the probability equation. We are dealing with a pertinent subset of U, this variable is related to the criterion variable.

152

## According to Kerlinger and Lee: - Bayes’ theorem is the basis for

### Confirmatory factor analysis, SEM, and discriminant analysis

153

## According to Kerlinger and Lee: What is - Sampling?

### taking a portion of a population or universe as a representation of that population or universe.

154

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Random Sampling

### method of drawing samples from a population such that every possible sample of a particular size has an equal chance of being selected. Resulting samples are called ‘random samples.’

155

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Sampling with replacement?

### placing each individual back into the population so that the probability remains the same

156

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Sampling without replacement?

### not replacing individuals chosen from a population

157

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is representative sampling?

### to be typical of a population – the sample has approximately the same characteristics as the population relevant to the research question.

158

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Randomization?

### is the assignment to experimental treatments of members of the universe in a way such that, for any given assignment to a treatment every member of the universe has an equal probability of being chosen for that assignment. (random assignment)

159

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - The purpose of randomization?

### spread out individuals with varying characteristics equally among treatment groups. No guarantee that this actually happens.

160

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is the importance of sample size (with regard to randomization)?

### use as large a sample as possible – gives the principle of randomness and randomization a chance to work

161

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is - Probability sampling ?

### use some form of random sampling in one or more of their stages

162

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Stratified sampling?

### population is divided into strata (men and women, Latino / white, etc.) and then random samples are drawn from the stratified groups.

163

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is the purpose of random sampling?

### helps to prevent, or curtail, bias

164

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Cluster sampling?

### successive random sampling of units, or sets and subsets. A cluster is a group of things of the same kind. Also referred to as area sampling (school districts, etc.)

165

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Two-stage cluster sampling?

### successive random sampling of units, or sets and subsets. then select a random sample of the elements and measure those elements

166

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Systematic sampling?

### order the elements of the population, figure out number needed for sample and pick every kth person (every 10th person on the list)

167

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is Non probability sampling?

### Sampling that does not use any form of random sampling

168

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Quota sampling?

### Type of non-probability sampling that using strata (sex, race, region, etc.) to select sample members that are representative or typical. (public opinion polls use this)

169

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Purposive sampling?

### Type of non-probability sampling that use of judgment and deliberate effort to obtain representative samples by including presumably typical areas or groups in the sample (marketing research)

170

## According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is • Accidental sampling?

### Type of non-probability sampling that weakest form of sampling, but most highly used – classes of seniors in high school, sophomores in college, etc

171

## According to Winnicot &Winnicot, - Regression allows

### prediction – how will Y be affected by X in a given situation

172

## According to Winnicot &Winnicot, “good fit” for the regression

### line that minimizes error the most

173

## According to Levin, experimental method is best for

### manipulating and controlling causal variables and identifying specific factors as the causes of a behavior

174

## According to Levin, - The method of observation is

### careful and systematic observation to observe behavior and its antecedents in the absence of outside intervention.

175

## According to Levin, what is the definition of - Manipulation?

### creating or selecting discrete levels of a variable and comparing responses across levels

176

## According to Levin, what is the definition of control?

### holding extraneous variables (anything other than the IV that could affect an experiment) constant across levels of the IV

177

## According to Levin, what is the definition of randomization?

### assigning subjects randomly to treatment conditions

178