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179

According to Levin, what is the definition of the dependent variable?

measure of performance or other outcome of the IV

180

According to Levin, what is the definition of - Subject characteristics?

Inherent characteristics of the participants that can affect the DV

181

According to Levin, what is Statistical inference based upon?

the notion that research data represent a random sample from some population where everyone in that population has an equal chance of being selected.

182

According to Levin, what is the definition of - Subject bias?

when a subject’s belief about what he/she should do in an experiment affects his/her response

183

According to Levin, what is the definition of - Experimenter bias?

when an experimenter’s measurement and treatment of the data influence the outcome of the research

184

According to Levin, what is the definition of double-blind investigation?

neither experimenter nor participant knows which experimental group the participant is in.

185

According to Levin, what is the definition of - Method of observation?

observation, recording and classification of behavior to determine relationships between variables

186

According to Levin, what is the purpose of - Longitudinal studies?

can help to understand trend and successive changes over time

187

According to Levin, what is Between subjects manipulation?

subjects receive different levels of the IV. Advantage – rules out possible contaminating influences introduced when a subject is in more than one treatment condition.

188

According to Levin, what is matching?

elaborate way to achieve control of subject variables than complete randomization – match subjects in each group on potentially confounding variable

189

According to Levin, what is Independent random groups design?

subjects are assigned to either the treatment condition or the control condition. Groups are treated alike in all ways except the IV and are randomized into treatment conditions.

190

According to Levin, what are matched pairs?

between subjects design – take 2 subjects with similar traits and put one in treatment group, one in control group.

191

According to Levin, what is Randomized blocks design?

subjects are rank ordered on the basis of a numerical subject variable such as scores on a pretest. Then arranged in blocks corresponding in size to the levels of the IV. For 3 IV’s, the 3 highest scores go in 1st condition, next 3 highest in the next condition, and so on.

192

According to Levin, what is factorial design?

all possible combinations or levels of a variable are included in the experiment. Separate effects are considered as well as the interaction effects between variables.

193

According to Levin, what is Correlation?

a way to quantify the relationship between paired scores

194

According to Levin, what is Regression?

a way to use correlation information to predict values of one of the scores.

195

According to Levin, what is linear relationship?

two-dimensional scatter plot graphs data with a straight line = line of best fit.

196

According to Kerlinger and Lee: what must we do when examining differences between means, correlations, etc.?

Compare relative difference, not only absolute difference

197

According to Kerlinger and Lee: what is the relation of n to statistical significance?

Large ns make statistical significance more likely (those effect sizes may be quite small)

198

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is a substantive hypothesis?

conjectural statement about the relationship between variables, but is not testable until translated into operational terms

199

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is a statistical hypothesis?

a conjectural statement in quantitative/statistical terms deduced from the relations of the substantive hypothesis... a prediction of how the stats used in analysis will turn out.

200

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is standard error?

the SD of the sampling distribution of any given measure. Since it is impossible to find the mean of the entire population, we use the sample mean to stand for the population mean. Testing this mean uses the SE of the mean, or sampling error. The SE of the mean is not the same as measuring the whole population, but is a measure of the dispersion of the distribution of the sample means.

201

According to Kerlinger and Lee: can we prove/accept the null hypothesis?

No. We can fail to reject the null hypothesis but not prove that it is true, so do not accept.

202

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is Monte Carlo Demonstration?

use computer generated random numbers to obtain solutions to mathematical, statistical, numerical, and verbal tests. These demonstrations can show that the SE of the mean can approximate the SD of the entire population.

203

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is The central limit theorem?

states that if samples are drawn from a population at random, the means of the samples will tend to be normally distributed. If a distribution approximates normality, we can assess it against the known properties of the normal curve.

204

According to Kerlinger and Lee: why is the standard error important?

determine stat. significance by dividing the statistic by the SE for that statistic.

205

What is type 1 error?

Rejecting the null hypothesis in the sample when it is true in the population.

206

What is type 2 error?

Failing to reject the null hypothesis in the sample when it is false in the population.

207

Reducing alpha (e.g. .05 -> .01) has what effect?

Minimizes type 1 error

208

Reducing beta (e.g. .2 -> .1) has what effect?

Minimizes type 2 error