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209

According to Kerlinger and Lee: What are the 5 steps of hypothesis testing?

1. State statistical hypothesis.
2. State null hypothesis.
3. Compute the test statistic using empirical data.
4. Decision: reject or do not reject null.
5. Leap of inference from our decision to the actual problem.

210

What is the main point of Maxwell & Delaney, 1990?

Discuss differences in philosophy of science. Rejects the notion of deductive science as pure objectivity and atheoretical investigation is impossible.

211

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: Science has two main assumptions

1. Lawfulness of nature 2. Finite Causation

212

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: Lawfulness of nature refers to

nature is understandable, uniform, and the principle of causality (Hume indicates that correlation is all we can know about causality... also, we no longer accept constant conjunction, the idea that the cause is necessary and sufficient for the effect. We now know that cause and effect are influenced by the context.)

213

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990, what is Finite Causation?

causes are not limitless, but we must determine which elements are the cause and under what conditions the cause creates the effect.

214

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: Positivism means

All knowledge in this stage is based on positive (certain, sure) methods of science.

215

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: positivism relies on

Verifiability Criterion of Meaning: A criterion is meaningful if and only if it is measured empirically.

216

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: Popper's Falsificationism states that

Progress occurs by falsifying theories. However, due to the limitations of data collection and stat. analysis, it may be impossible to disprove a theory. Also, ‘disproved’ theories may be the best current explanation. The converse of this is confirmationism, which is invalid but not entirely useless.

217

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: Kuhn posits paradigms as

that which defines universally accepted scientific knowledge and defines ‘normal science’. Anomalies slowly occur that disconfirm ‘normal science’ and thus, the paradigm, so a scientific revolution occurs to create a new paradigm.

218

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: what is the problem with Kuhn's characterization of paradigms?

Kuhn postulated that there is no objective truth and science never evolves, which is not generally accepted by modern scientists.

219

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: What is Realism?

There is an objective truth, and it is possible to discover it. However, lower level studies (chemistry) are not entirely adequate to address all of higher level studies (psych).

220

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: What is Validity?

Correctness of our proposition of how things work.

221

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: What are the 4 broad types of validity?

1. Statistical Conclusion Validity 2. Internal Validity 3. Construct Validity 4. External Validity

222

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: What is Statistical Conclusion Validity?

Correctness of our proposition regarding relationship between variables. Threats include low power because of small and/or diverse sample, unreliable measures, and violations of statistical assumptions

223

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: What is Internal Validity?

Approximate truth regarding inferences about cause and effect relationships. Threats include attrition, confounding variables, selection bias, maturation, history, regression.

224

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: What is Construct Validity?

Given there is a valid causal relationship, is the interpretation of the constructs involved correct? Threats include experimenter bias, treatment diffusion, resentful

225

According to Maxwell & Delaney, 1990: What is External Validity?

Can I generalize these finding across populations, settings, and time?

226

What is the main point of Pepinsky & Pepinsky?

Discusses the importance of observation and inference within clinical work

227

According to Pepinsky & Pepinsky, observation is

Statement of what which is given by immediate sensory experience

228

According to Pepinsky & Pepinsky, What are the purposes of observation?

1. Serve as a basis for inference about client behavior
2. facilitate the restatement of inferences as meaningful
3. afford a means of verifying hypotheses.

229

According to Pepinsky & Pepinsky, how does one expand their sample of client data

Through direct observations of a client. her knowledge of clinical/experimental studies of behavior, knowledge of society/the client’s culture, and knowledge of subcultures the client takes part in.

230

According to Pepinsky & Pepinsky, what is Direct observation?

focus on behavior of client, behavior of counselor, and their interaction.

231

According to Pepinsky & Pepinsky, what is Indirect observation?

Client’s social history, test scores, anecdotal of individuals outside the agency.

232

According to Pepinsky & Pepinsky, what is inference?

tentative conclusion based on observational data. Inferences can be evaluated only if the observations that led the counselor to make the inference are made explicit.

233

According to Pepinsky & Pepinsky, What is a prediction?

may be derived from an inference, which is based on observations and be regarded as a hypothesis. A prognosis is a special kind of prediction

234

What are the major points of Gelso 1979?

*The expectation that our grad programs produce people who exemplify the scientist-practitioner model is unrealistic, as many students entering these programs are ambivalent about research, and the counselor/research roles can be conflicting.
*There is a large amount of research on counseling supervision, but not research supervision. Many programs are lacking in encouraging students to be researchers.

235

What are the major points of Gelso & Lent, 2000?

*Research training environment affect Research Self Efficacy, which affects research productivity.
*Personality (investigative) is positively related to RSE + positive research outcome expectations. Generally, gender does not have an effect. As graduate students go through their programs, they gain more RSE.
*Negative attitudes toward research can be improved by teaching students that all studies are flawed, teaching varied approaches to research, encouraging students to look inward for research ideas, showing students that science and practice are wedded, and making stats instruction relevant to research.

236

What are the major points of Gelso, 2003?

*Students’ research attitudes and productivity are positive affected by: faculty modeling appropriate scientific behavior and attitudes, scientific behavior is reinforced both formally and informally, students are involved in research early in their training in a non-threatening way, it is emphasized that all studies are flawed, varied approaches to research are taught, students are shown how science and practice are wedded, and making research a partly-social experience.

237

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what is the basic principle that underlies statistical tests?

Comparison of obtained results to chance expectations

238

According to Kerlinger and Lee, what are statistics/purpose of statistics (4 things)?

1) A measure calculated from a sample. Are representative of population.
2) Aid in the study of population and samples.
3) Aid in decision making
4) Aid in making reliable inferences from observable data.