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Main foreign language study in England in the XVI, XVII and XVIII century



Methods to study Latin in England in the XVI, XVII and XVIII

Grammar rules
Writing simple sentences


Methods to study modern languages in Europe in the 18th Century

They were taught using the same basic procedures that were used for teaching Latin.


Textbooks used to learn modern languages in Europe in the 18th Century

Consisted of abstract grammar rules, lists of vocabulary and sentences for translation


Goals of learning modern languages in Europe in the 18th Century

Speaking was not the goal, and oral practice was limited to students reading aloud sentences they had translated.


Reasons to study Latin in Europe in the 18th century

Study of the bible
Academic purposes such as medical books and legal documents.
Study of the canon of classical written texts from Ovid and Cicero.
Distinguished educated people from ordinary folks.


Grammar Translation Method Background

Appeared in USA.
Dominated European and foreign language teaching from the 1840s to the 1940s.
Goal: To learn a language to read it or benefit from the mental discipline and intellectual development that result from foreign language study.


Focus of the Grammar Translation Method

Reading and writing are the major focus; little or no systematic attention is paid to speaking or listening.
Accuracy is emphasized
Grammar is taught deductively
The student's native language is the medium of instruction


Vocabulary and the Grammar Translation Method

Bilingual words lists


Disadvantages of the Grammar Translation Method

French/German > Latin
It decreased opportunities for communication among Europeans
- XIX Century, opposition against the GTM developed in seucral European countries.


Marcel - Approach of Language Teaching (France)

Child Language Learning
-Emphasized the importance of meaning in learning
-Proposed that reading be taught before other skills.
-Located language teaching within a broader educational framework.


Prendergast - Approach of Language Teaching (English)

-Proposed the first structural syllabus, advocating that learners be taught the most basic structural patterns occuring in the language.
-Emphasized that children use contextual and situational eves to interpret utterances.


Gouin - Approach of language teaching (French)

-Believed that language learning was facilitated throught using language to accomplish events consisting of a sequence of related actions.
- Proposed using situations and themes as ways of organizing and presenting oral language.
-Presented the use of gestures and actions to convey the meaning of utterances.


Bases of the new approaches of language teaching

-Speaking proficiency > Reading comprehension, grammar and literacy appreciation
-Observation and interest in how children learn languages
-Methods were developed outside the context of established circles of education
-Lacked the mean for wider discrimination, acceptance and implementation


Reform Movement Background

Towards the mid-nineteenth century several factors contributed to a questioning and rejection of the GTM


Disciplines of the Reform Movement

-Phonetics: The scientific analysis and description of the sound system languages (IPA)
-Linguistics: Emphasized speech rather than words as a primary form of language


Henry Sweet and the Reform Movement

Methodological sound Principles should be based on a scientific analysis of language and a study of psychology.
-Careful selection of what is to be taught
-Imposing limits on what is to be taught.
-Arranging what is to be taught (4 skills)
-Grading materials from simpler to complex.


Wilhelm Vietor and the Reform Movement

Training in phonetics would enable teachers to pronounce the language accurately.
Speech patterns > Grammar


Reformers in the late 19th century

-The spoken language is primary and it should be reflected in an oral based methodology.
-The findings of phonetics should be applied to teacher and to teacher training.
-Learner should hear the language first before seeing it in written form.
-Words should be presented in sentences, and these should be practiced in meaningful contexts and no be taught isolated.
-The grammar rules should be taught only after he has practiced it in context.
-Translation should be avoided although the native language could be used.


The Direct Method (Natural Approach) Background in France and Germany

Reformers argued that a foreign language could be taught without translation or the use of the learner's native language if meaning was directly conveyed through demonstration and action.


Principles and procedures

1. Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.
2. Everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
3. Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration.
4. Oral communication skills were developed (question - answer).
5. Grammar was taught inductively.


Drawbacks of the Direct Method

1. It required teachers who were native speakers in the foreign language.
2. It was largely dependent on the teacher's skill, and not all the teachers were proficient.
3. High foreign language = Low native language explainations


Direct Method Argumentation

Sauveur argued that a foreign language could be taught without translation of the learner's native language if meaning was conveyed directly through demonstration and action.


The Methods Era

The most active period in the history of approaches and methods was the 1950s to 1980s
- The study of approaches and methods provides teachers with a view of how the field of language teaching has evolved.
- Approaches and methods can be studied not as prescriptions of how to teach but as a source of well-used practices, which teachers can adapt or implement based on their own needs.
- Experience in using different teaching approaches and methods can provide teachers with basic teaching skills that they can later add to or supplement as they developed teaching experience