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Edward Anthony (1963)

Identified three levels of conceptualization and organization which called approach, method and technique


Anthony definition for approach (1965)

Encompasses all points of view on the nature of language and the nature of language teaching and learning. Linguistic and psycholinguistic features could be included in this area.


Anthony definition for method (1965)

Describes different plans for presenting language to students in an orderly manner.


Anthony definition for technique (1965)

Defines what actually
happens in the classroom


Richards and Rodgers definition for approach (1982)

A theory of the nature of language and of language learning.


Richards and Rodgers definition for method (design) (1982)

The specification of content, roles of learners, of teachers and materials.


Richards and Rodgers definition for technique (procedure) (1982)

Procedure in which tactics, practice exercises and activities were developed.


Different theories about the nature of language and how languages are learned (1) imply different ways of teaching language (2), and different methods make use of different kinds of classroom activities (3).

1. The approach
2. The method
3. The techniques


Method (Design)

A way of teaching a language which is based on systematic principles and procedures.
-The nature of language
-The nature of language learning
-Goals and objectives in teaching
-The type of syllabus to use
-The role of teachers, learners and instructional materials
-The techniques and procedures to use


Teachers and their methods

Teachers may develop their own teaching procedures based on particular theories of language learning. They may revise or modify the teaching/learning procedures on the basis of the performance of the learners and their reactions to instructional practice.


3 views of the nature of language

-Structural view
-Functional view
-Interaction view


Structural view

It views language as a system of structurally related element. The target of language learning is seen to be the mastery of elements of this system, which are generally defined in terms of:
-phonological units (phonemes)
-grammatical units (phrases, sentences)
-grammatical operations (adding, shifting, joining, or transforming elements)
-Lexical items (function words and structure words)


Functional view

It regards language as a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning.
-Communicative movement
-Semantic and communicative dimension
-Specification and organization of language teaching content by categories of meaning and function


Interactional View

It sees language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals.
-Language is seen as a tool for the creation and maintenance of social relations.
-The development of interactional approach to language teaching include interactional analysis, conversational analysis, and ethnomethodology.


Nature of Language Learning

1. Behaviorism: Stimulus- Response,Reinforcement.-Drilling, exercise, repetition.
2. Nativism: A child naturally has a language acquisition device (Kodrati).

3. Constructivism: A child acquired a language through interaction between the child and environment. (Jean Piaget).